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Posts with #cisco switches - cisco firewall tag

User Guide: Use nProbe as NetFlow-Lite Aggregator

May 8 2015 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Do you know how to use nProbe as NetFlow-Lite Collector? What’s the problem of NetFlow-Lite? What’s the typical nProbe Deployment? And how does the NetFlow-Lite Support in nProbe? In this article, we will share the main info related to these questions.

Problem Statement-NetFlow-Lite

• NetFlow-Lite brings visibility to switched networks.

• NetFlow-Lite are exports in v9/IPFIX format and contain packets sections.

• Legacy NetFlow collectors need additional support to understand and analyze NetFlowlite flows.

More Related NetFlow-Lite Topics

How to Use nProbe as NetFlow-Lite Aggregator/Collector?

Cisco Catalyst 4948E NetFlow-lite/NFLite in Detail

What is nProbe ?

What is nProbe ?

Typical nProbe Deployment

Typical nProbe Deployment

NetFlow-Lite Support in nProbe-01

NetFlow-Lite Support in nProbe-01

NetFlow-Lite Support in nProbe-02

NetFlow-Lite Support in nProbe-02

Final Remarks-NetFlow-Lite

Final Remarks-NetFlow-Lite

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Cisco NetFlow-Lite on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X, 2960-XR, 2960-CX, and 3560-CX Series Switches

May 7 2015 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Output from Cisco NetFlow-Lite

Output from Cisco NetFlow-Lite

Differences between Flexible NetFlow-Lite, Flexible NetFlow, and sFlow
Differences between Flexible NetFlow-Lite, Flexible NetFlow, and sFlow

We discussed the Cisco Catalyst 4948E NetFlow-lite/NFLite before. What’s the difference between the NetFlow and Netflow-Lite? We knew that NetFlow-lite was first introduced with Catalyst 4948E, and it bridges the gap by providing a lightweight solution that allows capturing of important flow information through packet sampling mechanisms combined with the extensibility of NetFlow version 9 and IPFIX. NetFlow-Lite introduces traffic visibility on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X, 2960-XR, 2960-CX, and 3560-CX Series Switches for the first time.

NetFlow-Lite collects packets randomly, classifies them into flows, and measures flow statistics as they pass through the switch. It is a true flow-based traffic-monitoring mechanism that conserves valuable forwarding bandwidth when exporting flow-based data for analysis and reporting.

In the following part it provides visibility into traffic that is switched through the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X, 2960-XR, 2960-CX, and 3560-CX Series Switches.

Firstly we can read what NetFlow-Lite is used for again

NetFlow-Lite offers network administrators and engineers the following capabilities:

Unprecedented visibility: NetFlow-Lite provides real-time information about traffic flows from endpoints such as PCs, phones, IP cameras, etc. You can use this information for traffic monitoring of Layer 2 and Layer 3 traffic as well as capacity planning.

Network planning: You can use NetFlow-Lite to capture data over a long period of time so that customers can understand traffic patterns, top talkers, top applications, etc. This feature provides accurate data to track and anticipate network growth and plan upgrades.

Simplified troubleshooting: You can use NetFlow-Lite flow-based analysis techniques to understand traffic patterns, which can help in proactively detecting problems, troubleshooting efficiently, and resolving problems quickly.

NetFlow-Lite Capabilities

NetFlow-Lite provides a granular packet-sampling mechanism that is adjustable up to 1:32 and available for all interfaces. The implication is that a subset of all packets passing through the switch is selected for reporting.

NetFlow-Lite on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X, 2960-XR, 2960-CX, and 3560-CX Series Switches have the following capabilities:

  • NetFlow-Lite is supported on all downlink and uplink ports.
  • NetFlow-Lite is natively available with no additional hardware required.
  • The sampling range is from 1:32 to 1:1022.
  • The application measures 16,000 flows per switch.
  • Physical ports and VLAN Interfaces (switched virtual interfaces [SVI]) are supported.
  • NetFlow-Lite supports ingress flows only.
  • Export using standards-based IP Information export (IPFIX) or Version 9 record format.

NetFlow-Lite Sampling Techniques

The sampling method of the traffic can be random or deterministic. Random sampling chooses one packet randomly out of a configured sample size, whereas deterministic sampling chooses the first packet out of a configured sample size. For example, for 1:32 sampling, deterministic mode would choose the 1st, 33rd, 65th, 97th, and so on packet coming into an interface, and random mode can choose the 5th, 39th, 72nd, 103rd, and so on packet coming into an interface. Random packet sampling is statistically more accurate than deterministic packet sampling.

NetFlow-Lite Solution-NetFlow-Lite configuration on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X, 2960-XR, 2960-CX, and 3560-CX Series Switches

Steps-Only 5 Steps

Step1. Configure a Flow Record, which defines the data collection. You can customize it for specific requirements. You can use the following example with most NetFlow collectors:

flow record v4

 match ipv4 tos

 match ipv4 protocol

 match ipv4 source address

 match ipv4 destination address

 match transport source-port

 match transport destination-port

 collect transport tcp flags

 collect interface input

 collect flow sampler

 collect counter bytes long

 collect counter packets long

 collect timestamp sys-uptime first

 collect timestamp sys-uptime last

Step2. Configure a Flow Exporter, which defines where the collected data needs to be sent. Please refer to the NetFlow collector application user guides and manual for specific details such as port number, differentiated services code point (DSCP), and other options. The configuration follows:

flow exporter Replicator

 description Exporter to Cisco Prime 2.0


 source GigabitEthernet1/0/1

 dscp 16

 template data timeout 60

 option interface-table

Step3. Configure a Flow Monitor, which binds the flow record and exporter along with options to configure the flow cache:

flow monitor v4

 record v4

 exporter Replicator

 cache timeout active 30

Step4. Configure a Flow Sampler. Define the sampling technique and sample size. The configuration follows:

sampler v4

 mode random 1 out-of 32

Step5. Attach the Flow Monitor and Sampler to the interface:

interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1

 ip flow monitor v4 sampler v4 input

Reference from http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/catalyst-2960-x-series-switches/solution_overview_c22-728776.html

Lists the License and Software Requirements for Cisco Netflow-Lite

Lists the License and Software Requirements for Cisco Netflow-Lite

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Top Choice, New Cisco 2960-X Series Switches for Branch Offices

April 30 2015 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Eight-Member C2960-X Stack, Rear View

Eight-Member C2960-X Stack, Rear View

Like the 2960-S Series, the Catalyst 2960-X is line-rate nonblocking switches with the following added features:

● Dual-core CPU at 600 MHz

● Cisco FlexStack-Plus stacking

◦ 80 Gbps bandwidth

◦ 8-member stack

● Dual-FRU power supply with integrated fan (2960-XR only)

● NetFlow-Lite on all downlink and uplink ports

● Switch Hibernation mode integrated with Cisco EnergyWise

● Energy-Efficient Ethernet (EEE) downlink ports

● Signed Cisco IOS Software images

● Layer 3 features with IP Lite feature set (2960-XR only)

● 24 port fan less model with 2 SFP and 210/100/1000BT uplinks

Key Words for the New Cisco 2960-X Series: Simple, Smart, Scalable, Green, Highly Secure, and Cost-Effective

When C2960-X switches are mixed in a stack with C2960-S and C2960-SF switches, the following is true:

• A maximum of four switches can be stacked

• Any combination of C2960-X and C2960-S switches can be utilized

• The master switch can be a member of either the C2960-X or C2960-S series

• The functionality of FlexStack-Plus reverts back to FlexStack capability

Feature Sets Supported in 2960-X Series Refer to the Figure Compare Models: Cisco 2960-X vs. 2960-S

More about Cisco 2960-X Series

WS-C2960X-48TD-L & WS-C2960XR-48TD-I Tested, from Miercom

Selecting Cisco Switches, For Campus or Branch?

How to Install or Replace an AC Power Supply in a Cisco 2960-X Switch?

Cisco Catalyst 2960-X/XR vs. Catalyst 3650 vs. Cisco 3850 Series

Compare Models: Cisco 2960-X vs. 2960-S

Compare Models: Cisco 2960-X vs. 2960-S

Stacking Snapshot of Cisco 2960 and HP 2920/5120 Switches

Stacking Snapshot of Cisco 2960 and HP 2920/5120 Switches

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Have a Look at Cisco Multigigabit Ethernet Switches

February 5 2015 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Multigigabit Ethernet Technology Supports New Intermediate Network Speeds



Benefits-Multigigabit Ethernet Technology

• Increase network bandwidth and speed without running multiple cables between switches and access points.

• Lower operational costs by getting more performance out of existing cabling infrastructure.

• Power devices that require up to 60W, at speeds over 1 Gbps, even at 10G Base-T rates.


Network needs are changing quickly. Thanks to evolving wireless standards and the rising number of wireless devices, keeping up with data rates and growing traffic can be a challenge. Your traditional Ethernet infrastructure can support speeds up to 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps), but competing today requires much more capacity. One option is completely replacing your legacy cabling infrastructure and upgrading your hardware. But wouldn’t it be better to increase network speed and traffic capacity in a way that’s quick, inexpensive, and efficient?


Cisco’s new Multigigabit Ethernet switches offer just that: an easy-to-deploy, budget-friendly solution that allows you to increase network speed and bandwidth using your existing cables. By partnering with other industry leaders to form the NBASE-T Alliance, Cisco uses NBASE-T technology to help you get more out of your existing infrastructure. Save time and money by avoiding upgrades and extending the life of your installed cable plants. And discover the benefits of meeting consumer demand for increased bandwidth and speeds without a large initial investment.

Multigigabit Ethernet technology uses capabilities in your existing cabling infrastructure to meet bandwidth requirements and provide up to five times the performance. The technology enables intermediate data rates of 2.5 and 5 Gbps to ease the jump between traditional rates of 1 Gbps  and 10 Gbps. These intermediate rates run on the majority of installed cables and preserve legacy UTP wiring, which is good for 802.11ac wireless LAN applications.

The technology also supports Power over Ethernet (PoE) forms, including PoE+ and UPOE. Cisco Multigigabit Ethernet switches help you avoid having to run multiple cables between switches and access points and let your networks welcome next-generation traffic speeds and data rates.

As part of our next-generation architecture, Multigigabit Ethernet switches will be supported on multiple Cisco Catalyst platforms:

• Cisco Catalyst 4500E Series Switches: Multigigabit Ethernet technology will be introduced in the form of a new E-Series line card compatible with Supervisor Engine 8-E and beyond.

• Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series Switches: New 24-port and 48-port switches will support Multigigabit technology.

• Cisco Catalyst Compact Switches: A new 8-port switch will support Multigigabit technology.

More about Cisco’s New Compact Switch-Catalyst 3560-CX and 2960-CX Series


An effective work environment encourages collaboration. That often means tearing down office walls to create open workspaces. Doing that is now simpler and less costly, thanks to Cisco’s next generation of compact switches, the Cisco Catalyst 3560-CX and 2960-CX Series.

With their quiet, fan-less design, the switches create many possibilities for designing workspaces. They can reside nearly anywhere outside your wiring closet. Install them in carpeted areas such as offices, conference rooms, classrooms, and retail stores for quick, flexible connections. Rearrange rooms and floors without changing your cabling infrastructure.

Cisco Catalyst 3560-CX Compact Switch

Deploy in a Snap

• Transform your workspaces without cabling hassles and expenses

• Locate switches nearly anywhere, outside your wiring closet

• Deploy Internet of Things (IoT) devices in your enterprise

• Replace your hubs, simplify switch management, and enhance security

• Aggregate gigabit Wi-Fi traffic flows with 10-Gbps uplinks


Consolidate cabling for big savings. Rather than running multiple Ethernet cables from endpoints like IP phones and Wi-Fi access points to a wiring closet, you just connect devices over a few feet of cabling to a nearby 3560-CX or 2960-CX switch. Then connect the compact switch to the wiring closet with a single Ethernet or fiber cable. Using this setup, a 200-room hotel using compact switches in guest rooms can eliminate up to 30 kilometers of cables. And a five-story shopping complex can eliminate about 7.5 kilometers of cable.

Note: 4:1 consolidation of cables, cable reduction of 3x100m for each customer service station. Assume 10 customer service stations per floor. Assume average cable run is 50m across all customer service stations, leads to 300m * 50 * 0.5 = 7,500m total cable reduction.

The Cisco Catalyst 3560-CX and 2960-CX switches enable you to bring sensors, LED lights, building controllers, and other IoT devices onto the network using Power over Ethernet (PoE). The many features and controls offered by these PoE switches make them run more efficiently and reliably. For example, Cisco Perpetual PoE continues powering endpoints even during a switch boot, maximizing uptime. So there’s no need for backup power. The switches provide up to 240 watts of power for PoE devices − twice the capacity of current switches.

For simplified management, these switches have the option to run in Cisco Instant Access mode. Instant Access provides a single point of operation and management for your campus networks. And they support Cisco Plug and Play (PnP) technology, which automates network device deployments.

The Cisco Catalyst compact switches support the full suite of Cisco Catalyst feature set for enterprise-class security and reliability. Cisco TrustSec and other advanced access control features protect against man-in-the-middle attacks and keep your Cisco Catalyst environment secure.


More Related Cisco Multigigabit Ethernet Switch Topics

About Cisco Catalyst Multigigabit Ethernet & Cisco Multigigabit Ethernet Switches

The Time of Multigigabit, Cisco’ s New Campus LAN Switches

New Cisco Catalyst 3560-CX and 2960-CX Series Switches Review

CAT-5, CAT-5e, CAT-6, and CAT-7-General Questions

Cat5e and Cat6 Cabling for More Bandwidth? CAT5 vs. CAT5e vs. CAT6

Read more

Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL Modular Switch Overview

January 19 2015 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch was introduced by Cisco for the next-generation campus. It is built on the rich DNA of the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switch and provides high levels of scalability and performance. The Cisco 6800 Series provides unprecedented investment protection for migrations and upgrades from the Cisco Catalyst 6500-E Series Switch.

Evolution of Cisco Catalyst 6000 Series


The Cisco 6800 Series Switch has been designed to meet the requirements of the next-generation enterprise network and to simplify the deployment of emerging  trends such as bring your own device (BYOD), mobility, pervasive video, collaboration, and resiliency and the resulting challenges of scale, security, and management, making it the ideal switch for all campus backbone deployments.

The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch provides unprecedented investment protection by supporting the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2T and its family of line cards and service modules. This backward compatibility coupled with the use of the same Cisco IOS Software operating system as used on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switch not only eases the burden of upgrades and migration but also reduces the total cost of ownership of the Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch.

The Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL chassis is the“modular” aspect of a new Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series family of multilayer switching products, which combine significant technological innovation with unparalleled investment protection, to support tomorrow’s campus backbone.


Module Support on the Cisco Catalyst 6807-X


The Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL chassis provides extremely high levels of system scalability and performance, coupled with unprecedented investment protection for migrations and upgrades from the current Cisco Catalyst 6500-E chassis:

It can deliver up to 11.4 Tbps of total system capacity, with up to 880 Gbps of per-slot bandwidth. In a VSS configuration, this level of support translates to a system capacity of up to 22.8 Tbps.

It is optimized for high-density 10, 40, and 100 Gigabit Ethernet, also providing superior customer investment protection by supporting the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 2T and associated LAN and service modules.


Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL Features and Benefits


The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series chassis is capable of delivering up to 11.4 terabits per second (Tbps) of system bandwidth capacity and up to 880 gigabits per second (Gbps) of per-slot bandwidth. In a system configured for VSS, this translates to a system capacity of 22.8 Tbps. The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch is optimized for high-density 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 40 Gigabit Ethernet, and 100 Gigabit Ethernet.


Availability and Resiliency

The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch provides a mechanism for rapid supervisor engine failover by supporting Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Switchover (NSF/SSO).

Moreover, with VSS Quad-Sup SSO (VS4O), the modular Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch takes high availability to the next level. VS4O is the next generation of VSS technology and provides 99.999% availability, making the Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch ideal for campus backbone deployments.


Smart Operations

The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch helps simplify the operation of the network by providing support for features such as Cisco Catalyst Instant Access and Smart Install.

The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch can be configured as a parent for Cisco Catalyst Instant Access deployments. Cisco Catalyst Instant Access enables the deployment of access switches instantly through a single touch point with feature and configuration consistency.

The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch can serve as a director for Smart Install: a plug-and-play configuration and image-management feature that provides zero touch deployment for new switches. You can ship a switch to a location, place it in the network, and power it on with no configuration required on the device.



The Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL chassis with Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2T provides comprehensive security with features such as Cisco TrustSec. Cisco TrustSec builds security and intelligence into the network with policy-based access control, identity-aware networking, and data confidentiality and integrity. Because networks have no borders, Cisco TrustSec helps secure borderless networks with confidence, consistency, and efficiency.



The Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL chassis with the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Supervisor Engine 2T provides a comprehensive suite of virtualization features including L2/L3 VPN, full MPLS, EVN, VRF aware applications for NAT Netflow, GRE for v4/v6, L2 extensions with VPLS, etc to segment different user groups and serve the unique security/QoS policy requirements of each of these diverse user groups.


Application Visibility and Control

The Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series Switch allows IT professionals to meet or exceed business service-level agreements and user expectations through:

Deep visibility and control for discovery, prioritization, monitoring, and control of applications — integrated into routing and switching with flexible NetFlow and QoS

Application recognition with NBAR and precise performance analytics with 1588 time stamping with integrated NAM-3 service module


Ready for Software Defined Networking (SDN)

Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL with Cisco Catalyst Supervisor Engine 2T is SDN ready, with a flexible architecture and API framework with OnePk that allows developers to deliver custom services such as network slicing and traffic steering based on industry standards such as OpenFlow to work in conjunction with applications that make the network agile.

PDF File from http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/switches/catalyst-6807-xl-switch/at_a_glance_c45-728226.pdf

More info you can refer to http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/catalyst-6807-xl-switch/white_paper_c11-728264.html


More Cisco 6800 Series Topics

Cisco Catalyst 6807-XL Modular Switch Review

Cisco Catalyst 6800 Series-The New Campus Backbone Switches

Cisco Catalyst 6800: New Name, Same Game

Cisco Catalyst 6880-X Series Review

Read more

A Layer-3 Switch or A Router?

December 19 2014 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Do you think that it’s not easy to select the very suitable network hardware for setting up your network, layer-3 switch or a router? What factors do you need to consider when you decide to buy network hardware? Generally, to choose a layer-3 switch or a router is not so complicated. Someone listed more differences between layer-3 switch and a router, which can help you make a smart decision. Let’s take a look.

In fact, a Layer 3 switch works much like a router. Why? Because it has the same IP routing table for lookups and it forms a broadcast domain. But pay attention, the “layer 3” feature makes the switch looks more like a “switch”.

The “switch” part of “Layer 3 switch” is there because:

  1. The layer 3 switch has 24+ Ethernet ports and no WAN interfaces.
  2. The layer 3 switch will act like a switch when it is connecting devices that are on the same network.
  3. The layer 3 switch is the same as a switch with the router’s IP routing intelligence built in.
  4. The switch works very quickly to switch or route the packets it is sent.


Layer 3 Switch is really like a High-Speed Router without the WAN connectivity. When it comes to Layer 3 Switching, there are two kinds: hardware and software. With a hardware-based solution, the device is using an ASIC (A Dedicated Chip) to perform the function. With the software implementation, the device is using a computer processor and software to perform the function. Generally, Layer 3 Switches and High-End Routers route packets using Hardware (Asics) and General-Purpose Routers Use Software to Perform Routing Functions.

In General, A Layer-3 Switch (Routing Switch) Is Primarily A Switch (A Layer-2 Device) That Has Been Enhanced Or Taught Some Routing (Layer 3) Capabilities. A Router Is A Layer-3 Device That Simply Do Routing Only. In The Case Of A Switching Router, It Is Primarily A Router That Uses Switching Technology (High-Speed Asics) For Speed And Performance (As Well As Also Supporting Layer-2 Bridging Functions).

Why we need a Layer 3 switch:

  •  Network with a lot of broadcasts that needs better performance.
  • Subnets and/or VLANS that are currently connected Via a router.
  • Higher Performance VLANS.
  • Departments Need Their Own Broadcast Domains For Performance Or Security.
  • Considering Implementing VLANS.


Difference between a Layer-3 switch and a Router:

  •  Performance versus Cost— Layer 3 switches are much more cost effective than routers for delivering high-speed inter-VLAN routing. High performance routers are typically much more expensive than Layer 3 switches.
  • Port density— Layer 3 switches are enhanced Layer 2 switches and, hence, have the same high port densities that Layer 2 switches have. Routers on the other hand typically have a much lower port density.
  • Flexibility— Layer 3 switches allow you to mix and match Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching, meaning you can configure a Layer 3 switch to operate as a normal Layer 2 switch, or enable Layer 3 switching as required.
  • Layer 3 Switch is used to route traffic between Ethernet networks, without having to worry about the complexities of supporting WAN technologies such as Frame Relay or ATM. Routing over WAN networks, simply by plugging a traditional router that connects to the WAN networks into the LAN network.
  • The key difference between Layer 3 switches and routers lies in the hardware technology used to build the unit. The hardware inside a Layer 3 switch merges that of traditional switches and routers, replacing some of a router’s software logic with hardware to offer better performance in some situations.

If we sum up the main features of a layer-3 switch, we can get some key points as follows:

Layer 3 Switch is used Primarily for Inter-VLAN Routing. It don’t Have WAN Connectivity. It Has 24+ Ethernet Ports And No WAN Interfaces. The Layer 3 Switch will act like a switch when it is connecting devices that are on the same network. It works very quickly to switch or route the packets it is sent. The Layer-3 switch is the same as a switch with the router’s IP Routing Intelligence built in.


More Related Network Hardware Topics

Use Layer-3 Switch or Router?

Layer-3 Switching or Layer-2 Switching?

How to Select You Cisco Switch and Router Hardware?

Read more

To Read about the Cisco Nexus 5548P Switch

December 12 2014 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Cisco Nexus 5548P Switch, the first platform in the Cisco Nexus 5500 Switches, is a one-rack-unit (1RU), 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet and FCoE access-layer switch built to provide 960 Gbps of throughput with very low latency. It has 32 fixed 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports that accept modules and cables meeting the Small Form-Factor Pluggable Plus (SFP+) form factor. One expansion module slot can be configured to support up to 16 additional 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports or 8 Fibre Channel ports plus 8 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports. The switch has a single serial console port and a single out-of-band 10/100/1000-Mbps Ethernet management port. Two N+N redundant, hot-pluggable power supplies and two N+N redundant, hot-pluggable fan modules provide highly reliable front-to-back cooling.

Cisco Nexus 5548P-

All ports are at the rear of the switches, simplifying cabling and reducing cable length. Cooling is front-to-back, supporting hot- and cold-aisle configurations that help increase cooling efficiency. The front panel includes status indicators and hot swappable, N+N redundant power supplies and their power entry connections and cooling modules. All serviceable components are accessible from the front panel, allowing the switch to be serviced while in operation and without disturbing network cabling.

Cisco Nexus 5548P Rear Panel

Cisco Nexus 5548P Rear Panel

Cisco Nexus 5548P Front Pane

Cisco Nexus 5548P Front Pane

The Cisco Nexus 5500 platform is equipped to support expansion modules that can be used to increase the number of 10 Gigabit Ethernet and FCoE ports or to connect to Fibre Channel SANs with 1/2/4/8-Gbps Fibre Channel switch ports, or both. The Cisco Nexus 5548P supports one expansion module from the following offerings:

• Ethernet module that provides sixteen 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet and FCoE ports using the SFP+ interface

Ethernet Expansion Module

Ethernet Expansion Module

• Fibre Channel plus Ethernet module that provides eight 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet and FCoE ports using the SFP+ interface, and 8 ports of 1/2/4/8-Gbps native Fibre Channel connectivity using the SFP interface

Combination Expansion Module


The Cisco Nexus 5548P control plane runs Cisco NX-OS Software on a dual-core 1.7-GHz Intel Xeon Processor C5500/C3500 Series with 8 GB of DRAM. The supervisor complex is connected to the data plane in-band through two internal ports running 1-Gbps Ethernet, and the system is managed in-band, or through the out-of-band 10/100/1000-Mbps management port. Table 1 summarizes the control-plane specifications.

Cisco Nexus 5548P Control Plane Components




1.7 GHz Intel Xeon Processor C5500/C3500 Series

(dual core)


8 GB of DDR3 in two DIMM slots

Program storage

2 GB of eUSB flash memory for base system storage

Boot and BIOS flash memory

8 MB to store upgradable and golden image

On-board fault log

64 MB of flash memory to store hardware-related fault and reset reasons


6 MB of SRAM to store syslog and licensing information

Management interface

RS-232 console port and 10/100/1000BASE-T mgmt0

The Cisco Nexus 5548P is equipped with seven UPCs: six to provide 48 ports at 10 Gbps, and one used for connectivity to the control plane. Figure 6 shows the connectivity between the control plane and the data plane.

Cisco Nexus 5548P Data Plane and Control Plane Architecture



More details about Cisco Nexus 5500 and Nexus 5548P you can read her http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-5548p-switch/white_paper_c11-622479.html


More Related Cisco Nexus 5500 Switch Review and Overview

Cisco Nexus 5500 Overview, More Models, Features and Comparison

The Viable Cisco Nexus 5500 Core Switch for the Midsized Enterprise

How to Move Cisco’s Catalyst 6500 to the Nexus 9000?

Nexus 9000 vs. Nexus 7000

Cisco Nexus 9000 Models Comparison: Nexus 9500 & Nexus 9300 Series

Three Cisco Nexus 9300 Models Overview

The 8-slot Nexus 9508 Switch Review

Cisco 9500 Nexus Switch Overview-Model Comparison

Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches Overview

Read more

Cisco ACI Mode

October 8 2014 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

The Nexus 9000 family of switches will operate in one of two modes:

NXOS Mode–If you’ve worked with Cisco’s DC switches like the Nexus 7K or 5K, this should be very familiar to you. In this mode, you essentially have a 10GbE or 40GbE switch, with the features that are baked into that

In NXOS Mode, all of the additional custom ASICs that are present on the switch fabric are used primarily for enhancing the functionality of the merchant silicon platform, such as increasing buffer space, etc.

ACI Mode–This is a completely different mode of operation for the Nexus 9000 switch. In this mode, the switch participates in a leaf-spine based architecture that is purely driven by application policy. It is in this mode that we are able to define application relationships, and imprint them onto the fabric.


ACI is meant to provide that translation service between apps and the network.


As mentioned before, also pointed out in the article Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches Overview, the second mode that the Nexus 9000 series operates in, is ACI mode. This mode allows for enhanced programmability across a complete fabric of Nexus 9000 switches. With ACI as the SDN solution on top, the fabric acts like one big switch–forwarding traffic using a myriad of policies that you can configure.

  • 1/10G Access & 10/40G Aggregation (ACI)

48 1/10G-T & 4 40G QSFP+ (non blocking)–meant to replace end-of-rack 6500’s

36 40G QSFP+ (1.5:1 oversubscribed)–used as a leaf switch, think end of rack

  • 40G Fabric Spine (ACI)

36 40G QSFP+ for Spine deployments (non blocking, ACI only)

1,152 10G ports per switch

  • 36 spine ports x 8 line cards=288 leaf switches per spine
  • Leaf switches require 40G links to the spine


The line cards that support ACI will not be released until next year.

Spine line cards

  • 36x 40G ports per line card and no blocking

Supervisor Modules

  • Redundant half-width supervisor engine
  • Common for 4, 8 and 16 slot chassis (9504, 9508, and 9516)
  • Sandy bridge quad core 1.8 GHz
  • 16GB RAM
  • 64GB SSD

System controllers

  • Offloads supervisor from switch device management tasks
  • Increased system resilience & scale
  • Dual core ARM 1.3GHz
  • EoBC switch between Sups and line cards
  • Power supplies via SMB (system management bus)

Fabric Extenders

  • Supports 2248TP, 2248TP-E, 2232PP-10G, 2232TM-10G , B22-HP, B22-Dell


Reference From http://keepingitclassless.net/2013/11/insieme-and-cisco-aci-part-1-hardware/


More Cisco ACI Mode Topics

Cisco ACI, What is It?

Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches Overview

Cisco 9500 Nexus Switch Overview-Model Comparison

The 8-slot Nexus 9508 Switch Review

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Cisco Catalyst 4500-X 10GE Modular Switch Review

September 2 2014 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches, the fixed 10GE aggregation switch, help you easily meet business growth objectives.

The Catalyst 4500-X series looks similar to the Cisco Nexus 5000 series switches, but actually it is definitely more of a campus LAN switch, rather than the Nexus data center line. There are two base configurations-a 16-port and a 32-port 10GE models. Each model has an expansion slot that currently supports an 8-port 10GE uplink model (Cisco datasheets suggest that a 40GE uplink module is on the roadmap).



Similar to the Nexus 5000s, the 4500-X ports support SFP+ 10GE optics along with 1GE SFP modules.The 4500-X supports both IPv4 and IPv6 routing in hardware, along with support for VRF-Lite and “Easy Virtual Network” (EVN) features. (The Nexus 5000s require an additional expansion module for layer 3 support).


VSS on Cisco 4500-X Series

The most intriguing feature in the 4500-X may be built-in VSS (“Virtual Switch System”) support. Two 4500-X switches can be linked by 10GE ports and configured as a single logical switch. This simplifies configuration while providing a higher level of availability. It also allows ether-channels to be be built across two switches (for link redundancy and performance while eliminating the need to build spanning-tree triangles). The VSS feature has previously been reserved for the 6500 chassis with Supervisor 720s. The 4500-X therefore offers a much more cost effective way to provide a highly available distribution layer (or even a core for smaller environments that want a 10GE backbone).



The Cisco 4500-X is an intriguing new solution as an aggregation switch for campus LANs that want to bring in 10GE uplinks without the cost or complexity of a chassis based switch. VSS capabilities in particularly allow for a dual switch redundant solution that logically functions as a single switch—a solution that up until now has required a much more expensive chassis based switch.


Quick Look at the Specifications of Cisco 4500-X Switch

Total 1 Gigabit or 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports

Up to 40

Hot-swap Uplink Module

8 x 10 GE


1 rack unit

Hot-swap, Redundant Power Supplies and Fans


System Power Consumption

~ 330 W

Integrated Services

Cisco Flexible NetFlow, Medianet, Cisco TrustSec

Reference from http://architechnic.net/architechnic/2012/3/6/new-cisco-catalyst-4500-x-10ge-modular-switch.html


More Related

Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series Switch Family

Cisco 4500 VSS Requirement-Software, Hardware and Licensing

Cisco Catalyst 4500E Supervisor Engine 8-E Review

VSS on Cisco 4500/4500X Switches

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Cisco ASA 5500-X Model Comparison: ASA 5525-X vs. ASA 5545-X vs. ASA 5555-X

July 30 2014 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Compared with the previous ASA 5500 series, Cisco ASA 5500-X next-generation firewall has some new features, for example, it provides services such as Application Visibility and Control (AVC) Services to control specific behaviors within allowed micro-applications, Web Security Essentials (WSE) Services to restrict web and web application usage based on reputation of the site and Intrusion Prevention (IPS) to provide critical threat protection from internet edge related attacks on your personal use computing systems. Through Cisco Security Intelligence Operations (SIO)*, these services provide web reputation that protects against zero-day threats.

  1. Cisco Prime Security Manager can now be used to centrally manage core ASA-X features along with Next-Generation services such as Application Visibility and Control, Web Security and IPS.
  2. ASA IPS is the only context aware IPS that uses device awareness, network reputation of the source, target value and user identity to drive mitigation decisions and provides a proactive protection against threats. It uses a combination of on- and off-box intelligence and does not require an additional hardware module.
  3. •4x increase in firewall throughput protects users as their current and future data consumption demands increase.
  4. •Redundant power supplies (on the ASA 5545-X and 5555-X appliances) protect against power outages.
  5. •Multicore enterprise-class CPUs deliver better performance.
  6. •Additional copper and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) Gigabit Ethernet ports provide greater flexibility for network configuration.
  7. •Cisco Cloud Web Security provides unmatched web security, application visibility and control for organizations of all sizes through a network of global data centers.
  8. •Cisco AnyConnect enables seamless secure remote access by providing an always-on secure connectivity experience across a broad set of desktop and mobile devices.


Your business, regardless of size, can get an end-to-end network security solution with the Cisco ASA 5500-X Series Next-Generation Firewalls. Cisco ASA 5525-X, ASA 5545-X or ASA 5555-X model? There is a Cisco ASA 5500-X series firewalls comparison table showing you the difference, which make you find the right one.

Cisco ASA Model

ASA 5525-X

ASA 5545-X

ASA 5555-X


Stateful Inspection throughput (max1)

2 Gbps

3 Gbps

4 Gbps

Stateful Inspection throughput (multiprotocol2)

1 Gbps

1.5 Gbps

2 Gbps

Next-Generation throughput3(multiprotocol)

650 Mbps

1 Gbps

1.4 Gbps

ASA IPS throughput4

600 Mbps
(Extra hardware module not required)

900 Mbps
(Extra hardware module not required)

1.3 Gbps
(Extra hardware module not required)

Concurrent sessions




Connections per second




Packets per second (64 byte)




3DES/AES VPN throughput5

300 Mbps

400 Mbps

700 Mbps

Site-to-site and IPsec IKEv1 client VPN user sessions




AnyConnect or clientless VPN user sessions6(AnyConnect license required)




Cisco Cloud Web Security users








High-availability support7

A/A and A/S

A/A and A/S

A/A and A/S

Integrated I/O

8-port 10/100/1000

8-port 10/100/1000

8-port 10/100/1000

Expansion I/O

6-port 10/100/1000 or 6-port GE (SFP)

6-port 10/100/1000 or 6-port GE (SFP)

6-port 10/100/1000 or 6-port GE (SFP)

Dual Power Supplies

Not available







1Maximum throughput with UDP traffic measured under ideal test conditions
2Multiprotocol = Traffic profile consisting primarily of TCP-based protocols or applications like HTTP, SMTP, FTP, IMAPv4, BitTorrent, and DNS.
3Throughput was measured using ASA CX Software Release 9.1.1 with multi-protocol traffic profile with both Application Visibility Control (AVC) and Web Security Essentials (WSE). Traffic logging was enabled as well.
4Firewall traffic that does not go through IPS service can have higher throughput.
5VPN throughput and sessions count depend on the ASA device configuration and VPN traffic patterns. These elements should be taken into consideration as part of your capacity planning. Maximum throughput numbers are based on IPsec IKEv1 Remote Access VPN Connectivity
62 AnyConnect Premium User Licenses are included by default
7A/A = Active/Active; A/S = Active/Standby


More Related Cisco ASA Firewall Topics:

Does Cisco ASA 5500-X Series Support Both IPS and AVC/WSE in One Box?

ASA 5505 vs. ASA 5510 vs. ASA 5512-X vs. ASA 5515-X

Cisco ASA5510 Vs ASA5512-X or Cisco 5515-X

Cisco ASA 5500-X vs. ASA 5500

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