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Posts with #networking tag

Cisco Aironet 1850 Series Access Points-Gigabit Wi-Fi Has Fully Arrived

February 14 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP

Designed for small and medium-sized networks, the1850 Series delivers the performance you need for the ongoing proliferation of Wave 2 (the latest Wi-Fi technology you should try) as well as support for older Wi-Fi devices.

With 802.11ac Wave 2, the Aironet 1850 Series provides a data rate of up to 1.7 Gbps on the 5-GHz radio, more than triple the rates offered by today’s high-end 802.11n access points. It also enables a total aggregate dual-radio data rate of 2.0 Gbps, providing the necessary foundation for enterprise and service provider networks to stay ahead of the performance and bandwidth expectations and needs of their wireless users.

Gigabit Wi-Fi Has Fully Arrived with the Aironet 1850 Series Access Points

How It Works











Compare 1850 Series Models

More Related:

NEW Cisco Aironet 1850 Series Access Points Focus on Wave 2 Wifi

New Cisco Aironet 1830 Series APs-Gigabit Wi-Fi Has Fully Arrived

Go On, All the Benefits of 802.11ac Wave 2

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LiFi vs. WiFi-Basic Difference between LiFi and WiFi

February 8 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Technology - IT News

In the last article, we told what Li-Fi is and what LiFi system basics are. It seems a cool technology in network communication? Compared to today’s popular Wi-Fi, can you tell some difference between them? In this article we list some main differences between LiFi and WiFi. Which one is better? Let’s check.

We know that Li-Fi is the short form of Light Fidelity and Wi-Fi is the short form of Wireless Fidelity. LiFi uses light for data transmission while WiFi uses electro-magnetic waves at radio frequencies for data transmission. Due to less interference incurred by light compare to radio frequency waves, it is used in more dense environments.

LiFi covers distance of about 10 meters while WiFi covers about 30 meters. Both provides almost same data transfer rate. Let us understand Li-Fi internet and Wi-Fi internet network architectures.

Figure-1: Li-Fi internet

The figure-1 depicts Li-Fi internet network architecture. As shown in the figure there are two major components in Li-Fi internet viz. LED Lamp and Li-Fi Dongle.

• As shown lamp driver is connected with internet on one end and with LED lamps on the other end. Streaming content from internet are pushed to the LED lamps through Lamp driver software.

• LED lamps are placed at different locations as per requirement in the office or home premises for multiple users.

• Li-Fi dongle is used in order to use Li-Fi internet services by various users. As shown Person#1 is browsing internet in Laptop, Person#2 in tablet and Person#3 in smartphone.

• As shown LiFi dongle is composed of photodetector, amplification & processing and applications for different types of data.

• All the LED lamps can be swithed on and off using a power button switch provided.

• Li-Fi internet provides very fast data rate at 1 Gbps speed.

Figure-2: Wi-Fi internet


• The figure-2 depicts Wi-Fi internet network architecture.

• As shown in the figure there are two major components in WiFi internet viz. WiFi router and WiFi dongle or WiFi Stations.

• WiFi router is connected with ADSL modem or Cable modem. This modem is connected with network of internet service provider.

• WiFi router works on multiple bands (e.g. 2.4 or 4.9 or 5 GHz) as per requirement. It converts internet data packets into wifi compliant signals at above bands. WiFi works on IEEE 802.11 standards.

• These EM waves are received by WiFi dongles or Stations connected with IP compliant devices. Hence WiFi internet is used by various clients as shown in the figure-2.

In the following table we will list the basic difference between LiFi and WiFi technologies.

Feature Comparison: LiFi vs. WiFi

Lifi is not the replacement of wifi technology. It can be considered as incredible companion of the wifi technology. It operates between 380 nm to 780 nm optical range. LiFi is used to exchange data incredibly rapidly and securely at much lower power level compare to WiFi.

Products Based on Li-Fi Technology | Li-Fi products

There are various li-fi products such as lamps, Kits, LiFi smartphone etc. The vendors and OEMs of LiFi products are also mentioned.

LiFi Kit

OLEDCOMM is a world leader in LiFi products which includes LiFi routers, LiFi hubs, LED drivers, LED lamps and complete kit for lighting system. There are several LiFi kits developed by OLEDCOMM. The kit contains following :
• LED Lamps
• Tablet with Android
• Dongle to use with LiFi Smartphone
• Software library
• location based application for LED Lamps.

Panasonic LiFi Lamp

Panasonic has range of LiFi LED Lamps.

Popular LiFi products with Vendors

Following are the popular LiFi products and their leading vendors.

Info & Reference from



More Related

Introduction to LiFi Internet

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Introduction to LiFi Internet

February 6 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Technology - IT News

Do you hear of Li-Fi? Maybe you are familiar with Wi-Fi in today’s network world, but you may not know much about the new Li-Fi.

What’s the Li-Fi?

LiFi is the short form of "Light Fidelity". It works on the principle of Visible Light Communication (i.e. VLC). The network is also referred as VPAN or VLC Personal Area Network. The VLC transmits data by intensity modulation. It uses LEDs and Laser diodes (or photo detectors) at transmit and receive ends respectively. It works in 380 nm to 780 nm optical band which is visible light and hence the name VLC.

The VLC standard or VPAN standard defines three classes of devices viz. infrastructure, mobile and vehicle. These devices operate in one of the three topologies mentioned below. The different device has different coverage range, data rate and other requirements.

In this article we will share the LiFi tutorial that covers LiFi system basics. This LiFi tutorial covers LiFi network architecture, LiFi protocol stack, LiFi PHY, LiFi MAC, LiFi bands, LiFi modulation types (OOK, VPPM, CSK).

LiFi Network Topologies

It works in three modes as mentioned above in the figure above. In star topology, communication is established between central controller (i.e. coordinator) and devices. In peer to peer topology, one of the devices should become coordinator at the time of establishing association.

Each device or coordinator has unique 64 bit address. Device can use 16 bit address also upon request at the time of establishing association with coordinator.

LiFi Protocol Stack


The figure above depicts protocol stack used in a typical VPAN device. As shown protocol stack consists of PHY, MAC and upper layers.

Physical layer houses light transceiver. PHY switch housed in PHY layer interfaces with optical SAP which connects it to the optical medium. The optical medium composed of one or multiple optical sources or optical detectors (e.g. laser diodes or photodiodes).

MAC layer provides channel access for all types of data and control message transmissions.

Upper layer consists of network layer and application layer. Network layer takes care of providing network configuration, network manipulation, message routing etc. Application layer takes care of providing intended functionality as needed by the VPAN or LiFi device.

DME (Device Management Entity) is also supported by LiFi or VPAN network architecture. It makes interfacing between dimmer and PHY/MAC a reality.


There are three types of physical layer configurations supported in VLC or LiFi System Viz. PHY-I, PHY-II, PHY-III. Different rates can be achieved in different configurations. They can be used indoor or outdoor.


MAC layer takes care of resource management i.e. allocation of channels, IDs as well as entire network management. Refer LiFi MAC LAYER.

LiFi Modulation Types-OOK, VPPM, CSK

There are different modulation schemes used in different physical layer modes. OOK stands for On Off Keying, VPPM stands for Variable Pulse Position Modulation and CSK stands for Color Shift Keying.

Applications of LiFi or VLC system


There are many applications of LiFi or VLC system as lighting and data communications. Typical among them are lighting, signboards, street lights, vehicles and traffic signals or lights. The figure mentions emerging application of LiFi for internet data communication. It has also become popular due to wide adoption of IoT based technologies.

Benefits of LiFi System

Following are the benefits of LiFi system:

• It transfers data very rapidly.

• It transfers data securely as it can be used in Line of Sight mode of optical signal. It does not pierce through the walls and hence it cannot be easily intruded by hackers.

• It uses much low power for transmission compare to other systems such as WiFi.

Note: Information provided on this page is derived from IEEE 802.15.7-2011 draft version. The standard describes PHY layer and MAC layer of Short Range Wireless Optical Communication using Visible Light. The standard is also referred as VPAN or VLC-PAN. Here 'V' or 'VLC' stands for Visible Light Communication. Pls. refer latest standard specifications published time to time by IEEE for any updates.

Info & Reference from http://www.rfwireless-world.com/Tutorials/LiFi-tutorial.html

What do the Audiences say about the new Li-Fi?

Shabaz202khan Jun 8, 2016

Lifi is nowhere near to become Wifi's alternative. There a huge difference between their working hence, application areas. Wifi is a lot more flexible to use than Lifi. It can be used parallel with wifi but there's no way it will replace wifi completely.

Here are some facts to support my upper statement. No matter how fast or secure Lifi is, there are still few drawbacks and limitations that may stop it from becoming a true alternative to existing wifi. Let me write a few-

1. Range and Line of Sight: This one is pretty common. Lifi requires a direct line of sight to work efficiently; your signal can be interrupted by almost any obstacle lying between you and your lifi source. Light can't pass through walls, hence, your signal is restricted to the room only; where the light can't reach. If you move out of sight of LED, you lose connectivity.

2. Cost: As I already told above, you need to be strictly in direct sight of LED to use it efficiently, meaning you may need at least one device for each of your sitting places in your house. And you also need an individual lifi receiver for each of your device that you want to use the internet on. Plus the fact that you may need to rewire your house too as the lifi LED will need ethernet wire to produce work. The cost is going to be way more than normal Wifi.

Juan Gonzalez

Comcast already use Wi-Fi with speeds over 2GBps, faster than the one you are talking. But, but, I belive that I read that Li-Fi is able to get over 200 GBps, so I think you need to update your information about this matter.

Read this http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/apple/iphone/12107410/Future-iPhones-could-feature-Li-Fi-a-technology-100-times-faster-than-Wi-Fi.html


If 1Gbps is 100 times faster than your WiFi, that implies a slow10 Mbps WiFi.

I just transferred, via WiFi, a 3.909 GB rar file from my desktop to my laptop. That took 961 seconds ... which means I got about 32.5 Mbps *REAL* transfer rate. The modem/router from my ISP is about 2 years old and my laptop and desktop are both about 3 years old: might the file transfer have gone faster with newer/better hardware?

More reviews you can read here:



More topics related to internet you can read here: http://blog.router-switch.com/category/internet-2/

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Choose the Right Enterprise Campus and Branch Switch

January 23 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco & Cisco Network

Do you need to...

Manage switches in the cloud?

Simplify and scale virtual networking?

Use your network to strengthen security?

Gain pervasive visibility into your infrastructure?

Digitize your Audio Video network?

Get a platform for extreme industrial environments?

Build carrier-class cloud services?

Check the Cisco Switch Family to find the right one for your needs.

Lead SwitchIt is the best-in-class switch that has high-end differentiated set of features in a given category. This switch has the most differentiation compared to competitors in that category.

Base SwitchIt is the entry level switch in the given category. Also called the foundation switch, it has a lower price and limited feature set, but still better than competitors.

Cisco Catalyst Switch Portfolio

Functionality Based: Campus Access Switches



Wired & Wireless (Modular)

Lead: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8-E

Wired & Wireless (Stackable)

Lead: Catalyst 3850 (Up to 50 APs, 2000 Clients)

Base: Catalyst 3650 (Up to 25 APs, 1000 Clients)

Gigabit Ethernet (Modular)

Lead: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8-E

Base: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 7L-E

Gigabit Ethernet (Stackable)

Lead: Catalyst 3850

Base: Catalyst 3650, Catalyst 2960-X/XR

Gigabit Ethernet (Instant Access)

Lead: Catalyst 6800ia

Gigabit Ethernet (Cloud Managed)

Lead: Meraki MS Series

Fast Ethernet (Stackable)

Lead: Catalyst 2960-SF

Fast Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 2960-SF

Base: Catalyst 2960-Plus

8/12 port Gigabit Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 3560-C

8/12 port Fast Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 2960-C


Functionality Based: Branch Access Switches



Wired & Wireless (Modular)

Lead: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8-E

Wired & Wireless (Stackable) (Converged Access is the Recommended Deployment Mode)

Lead: Catalyst 3850 (Up to 50 APs, 2000 Clients) Base: Catalyst 3650 (Up to 25 APs, 1000 Clients)

Gigabit Ethernet (Modular)

Lead: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8-E Base: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 7L-E

Gigabit Ethernet (Stackable)

Lead: Catalyst 3850

Base: Catalyst 3650, Catalyst 2960-X/XR

Gigabit Ethernet (Cloud Managed)

Lead: Meraki MS Series

Fast Ethernet (Stackable)

Lead: Catalyst 2960-SF

Fast Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 2960-SF

Base: Catalyst 2960-Plus

8 port Gigabit Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 3560-C

8/12 port Fast Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 2960-C


Functionality Based: Campus Backbone Switches



1/10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet (Modular)

Lead: Catalyst 6807-XL

Base: Catalyst 6500-E with Supervisor Engine 2T

1/10/40 Gigabit Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 6880-X (semi-modular) Base: Catalyst 4500-X

1/10 Gigabit Ethernet (Modular)

Lead: Catalyst 6500-E with Supervisor Engine 2T

Base: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8-E

1 Gigabit Ethernet (Standalone)

Lead: Catalyst 4500-X

Base: Catalyst 3850 Fiber


Campus Access Switches Upgrade Path

From Existing Switch

To New Switch

Catalyst 2900XL, 2948-G, Any 2950, 2970, Any non-X 2960

Lead: Catalyst 3650

Base: Catalyst 2960-X/XR

Catalyst 3500XL, Any 3550, Any 3560, Any 3750

Lead: Catalyst 3850

Base: Catalyst 3650

Catalyst 4500 non-E Any Catalyst 4500 without Supervisor Engine 8-E or 7L-E

Lead: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8-E Base: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 7L-E

Any Catalyst 6500 non-E or E in Access

Lead: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8-E Base: Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 7L-E, Catalyst Instant Access


Campus Backbone Switches Upgrade Path



Campus and Branch Access Switches

Enterprise Campus Switch Family


Catalyst 2960-CX & 3560-CX

Lead: Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) and Multigigabit Ethernet (mGig) managed switches are ideal for high-speed data connectivity, Wi-Fi backhaul, and Power over Ethernet (PoE+) connectivity in places where space is at a premium.

Catalyst 2960-Plus

Base: standalone access switch for Fast Ethernet

Catalyst 2960-SF

Lead: standalone/stackable access switch for Fast Ethernet with PoE+ (Compared to 2960-Plus, Offers Stacking, PoE+)

Meraki MS Series

Cloud managed virtually stackable access switch for Gigabit Ethernet with PoE+

Catalyst 2960-X/XR

Base: stackable access switch for Gigabit Ethernet with PoE+

Catalyst 3650

Base: stackable access switch for wired-wireless convergence and Fast / Gigabit Ethernet with PoE+

Catalyst 3850

Lead: stackable access switch for wired-wireless convergence with UPOE/PoE+ (Compared to 3650, Offers 3x stacking bandwidth - 480G and 2x AP’s - 50, Modular uplinks and StackPower)

Lead: stackable access switch for Gigabit Ethernet with PoE+ (Compared to 2960-X, Offers Medianet, Enhanced Security, Application Visibility & Control, Resiliency, 6x stacking bandwidth (480G)0

Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 7L-E

Base: modular access switch for Fast/Gigabit Ethernet with UPOE/PoE+

Catalyst 4500E with Supervisor Engine 8E

Lead: modular access switch for wired-wireless convergence and Fast/Gigabit Ethernet with UPOE/PoE+ (Compared to Sup 7L-E, Offers Built-in wireless controller, 1.7x switching capacity (928G), 2x uplinks (8x10G))

Base: modular backbone switch for 1/10G


Campus Backbone Switches

Enterprise Campus Switch Family


Catalyst 6800ia

Lead: stackable access switch for Catalyst 6800/6500 with Catalyst Instant Access (Simplification of access with centralized configuration, management and operations using Catalyst 6K backbone switch)

Catalyst 3750-X Fiber

Base: stackable backbone switch for 1G

Catalyst 4500-X

Lead: standalone backbone switch for 1G (Compared to 3750-X Fiber, Offers VSS, 2x ports (40x1G), 2x uplinks (8))

Base: standalone backbone switch for 1/10/40G (up to 40x10G ports)

Catalyst 6500-E with Supervisor Engine 2T

Lead: modular backbone switch for 1/10G (MPLS, EVN, Service Modules)

Base: modular backbone switch for 1/10/40/100G

Catalyst 6807-XL

Lead: modular backbone switch for 1/10/40/100G (up to 880G/slot, 11.4 Tbps switching, All 6500 features, service modules)

Catalyst 6880-X

Lead: standalone backbone switch for 1/10/40G (with up to 80x10G or 20x40G ports)

Reference from http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/global/es_mx/partners/sell/switchit/pdfs/47492_switching_poster_april_3.pdf

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When is the Best Time to Choose Buy Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series?

January 16 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco IP Phones, #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network

When is the Best Time to Choose Buy Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series? If your business is considering migration to the cloud, you’ll enjoy the investment protection and flexible deployment options available with the 7800 Series.

All models support deployment options including on-premises, Cisco Spark for cloud delivery, and hybrid configurations, and are planned for testing on select hosted third-party call control platforms.

The Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series phones are not only budget-friendly endpoints, but they can also help you save on operating costs.

They are Power over Ethernet (PoE) Class 1 rated, helping you optimize port availability in your wiring closets when deployed. In addition, the Cisco EnergyWise Power Save Plus option on the 7821, 7841, and 7861 models reduces power consumption by up to 60 percent in off-work hours.

Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series Overview

The Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series includes the following four models: Cisco IP Phone 7811, 7821, 7841, and 7861.

• Cisco IP Phone 7811: A single-line endpoint designed for common areas and knowledge workers with occasional to light voice communications needs. It comes with a 3.28-inch (83-mm), high-resolution monochrome display and a speakerphone. It also has an IEEE 10/100 integrated switch to support a local PC. Wideband audio is available via purchase of an optional wideband handset. Cisco IP Phone 7811 supporting one line (available in charcoal only)

• Cisco IP Phone 7821: Building on the 7811, the 7821 is a two-line endpoint for knowledge workers and managers, on-premises or remote, who have light to moderate voice communications needs. Contact center agents that support small call-queue environments could also have interest. It comes with two dedicated programmable line and feature keys, a 3.5-inch (89-mm) backlit display, and support for third-party headsets. Wideband audio comes standard on the handset, headset, and speakerphone. Cisco IP Phone 7821 supporting two lines (available in charcoal and white)

• Cisco IP Phone 7841: Adding to the features of the 7821, the 7841 is a four-line endpoint for knowledge workers, administrative staff and managers, and contact center agents and supervisors, whether onpremises or remote, with moderate to active voice communications needs. It comes with four dedicated programmable line and feature keys. The 7841 includes an IEEE 10/100/1000 integrated switch to support a co-located PC. Cisco IP Phone 7841 supporting four lines (available in charcoal and white)

• Cisco IP Phone 7861: A 16-line endpoint with programmable line and feature keys for administrative staff, managers, contact center agents and supervisors who require active voice communications support. It comes with a paper label insert that you can locally print to customize its line and feature key labels. The 7861 includes an IEEE 10/100 integrated switch. Cisco IP Phone 7861 supporting sixteen lines (available in charcoal and white)

1 Vendor platforms targeted for testing include Asterisk, Broadsoft, Gamma, Metaswitch, Ring Central, and 8x8. Additional platforms may be supported based on RFC compliance. Traditional telephony platforms from Avaya/Nortel, Siemens/Unify, NEC, Mitel, and ShoreTel are not planned for support. For further details on platform availability and timing, contact your Cisco or authorized partner representative.

More Features and Benefits of the Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series

Graphical display:

  • White backlit, greyscale, 3.5” 396×162 pixel-based display on the IP Phone 7821, 7841 and 7861.
  • Non-backlit, greyscale, 3.28” 384×106 pixel-based display on the IP Phone 7811.
  • Provide scrollable access to calling features and text-based XML applications.


  1. The handset is a standard wideband-capable audio handset (connects through an RJ-9 port) for the IP Phone 7821, 7841 and 7861.
  2. The default handset is a standard narrowband-capable audio handset (connects through an RJ-9 port) for the IP Phone 7811, and wideband on handset is available with purchase of additional wideband handset.
  3. The handset is hearing aid-compatible (HAC) and meets Federal Communications Commission (FCC) loudness requirements for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). You can achieve Section 508 loudness requirements by using industry-standard inline handset amplifiers such as Walker Equipment W-10 or CE-100 amplifiers. The dial pad is also ADA-compliant.
  4. The narrowband handset (for the IP Phone 7811) produces a magnetic field that attracts small metallic objects such as pins and staples. To avoid possible injuries do not keep small metallic objects close to the handset.

Headset: The analog headset jack is a standard wideband-capable RJ-9 audio port for the IP Phone 7821, 7841, and 7861.

Backlit Indicator:

  • The phone supports backlit indicators for the audio path keys (handset, headset and speakerphone), select key, line keys, and message waiting.
  • Headset key is not available on the IP Phone 7811.

Volume control

● A volume-control toggle provides easy decibel-level adjustments of the handset, monitor speaker, and ringer.

Full duplex speakerphone

● Full-duplex speakerphone allows gives you flexibility in placing and receiving calls. For added security, the audible dual tone multifrequency (DTMF) tones are masked when the speakerphone mode is used.


  1. The IP Phone 7821, 7841 and 7861 include a default black bezel (replaceable), and an optional silver bezel is also available separately.
  2. The IP Phone 7811 is available with a black bezel.

Dual-position foot stand

  1. The display is easy to view and the buttons and keys are easy to use. The two-position foot stand supports viewing angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees; you can remove the foot stand for wall mounting, with mounting holes located on the base of the phone. (IP Phone 7821, 7841 and 7861)
  2. Only 1 foot-stand position (45 degrees) is supported on the IP Phone 7811.


● The phone can be installed on a wall using optional wall-mount kit (available separately).

Electronic hook switch

● The hookswitch can be controlled electronically with a third party headset connected to the auxiliary port for the IP Phone 7821, 7841, and 7861.


Power Features

IEEE PoE class 1

● The phone supports IEEE 802.3af PoE (Class 1); power consumption does not exceed 3.84 watts.

Cisco power cube 3

● This power cube is used as a standard Cisco IP Phone Power Supply for non-PoE deployments.

Cisco power injector

● The IP Phone 7811, 7821 and 7861 are compatible with Cisco Unified IP Phone Power Injector (CP-PWR-INJ), and 7841 is compatible with Cisco Aironet Power Injector (AIR-PWRINJ5=).

Call-Control Support

Cisco Unified Communications Manager

● 8.5.1

● 8.6.2

● 9.1.2

● 10.x and later

Cisco Business Edition 6000

● 8.6.2

● 9.1.2

● 10.x and later

Cisco Hosted Collaboration Solution

● 8.6.2 and later (using supported UCM versions above)

Cisco Unified Survivable Remote Site Telephony

● 8.x and later

Licensing: The Cisco IP Phone 7811 and 7821 require a Basic User Connect License (UCL) in order to connect to Cisco Unified Communications Manager. The Cisco IP Phone 7841 and 7861 require an Enhanced User Connect License (UCL) in order to connect to Cisco Unified Communications Manager.

The Main IP Phone 7800 Series Models

More ordering info you can check here: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/collaboration-endpoints/unified-ip-phone-7800-series/data-sheet-c78-729488.html

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Deploying Cisco ASA FirePOWER Services in the Data Center

January 3 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Technology - IT News

The Data Center is a one of popular words in network communication. And it can be definited as a very complex world.

The Data Center not only provides a rich set of services and architectures but also hosts the crown jewels of an organization. It is extremely important to maintain visibility of everything that is happening in the data center.

The concept of “north-to-south” and “east-to-west” is often used in describing the types of communication (or flow) within and to the outside of the data center:

  • North-to-south describes communication between end users and external entities.
  • East-to-west describes communication between entities in the data center.

The following Figure illustrates the concepts of north-to-south and east-to-west communication.


The data center has many different high-throughput and low-latency requirements, in addition to increased high-availability requirements. In addition, automated provisioning and control with orchestration, monitoring, and management tools are crucial.

The data center architecture consists of three primary modular layers with hierarchical interdependencies:

  • Data center foundation: This is the primary building block of the data center, on which all other services rely. Regardless of the size of the data center, the foundation must be resilient, scalable, and flexible to support data center services that add value, performance, and reliability. The data center foundation provides the computing necessary to support the applications that process information and the seamless transport between servers, storage, and the end users who access the applications.
  • Data center services: These services include infrastructure components to enhance the security of the applications and access to critical data. They also include virtual switching services to extend the network control in a seamless manner from the foundation network into the hypervisor systems on servers to increase control and reduce operational costs (as well as other application resilience services).
  • User services: These services include email, order processing, and file sharing or any other applications in the data center that rely on the data center foundation and services, like database applications, modeling, and transaction processing.

The Figure below illustrates some of the components of the data center services architecture.


Examples of the data center service insertion components include the following:

  • Firewalls (In the example illustrated in the Figure above, Cisco ASAs with FirePOWER modules are deployed.)
  • Intrusion prevention systems (IPS)
  • Application delivery features
  • Server load balancing
  • Network analysis tools (such as NetFlow)
  • Virtualized services deployed in a distributed manner along with virtual machines
  • Traffic direction with vPath and Nexus 1000v
  • Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI) automated framework components for service insertion

In the case of virtualized environments, the Cisco ASAv (virtual machine) can be deployed to protect VM-to-VM communication. The Cisco ASA FirePOWER module in these environments is not supported, as the Cisco ASAv is just a virtual machine. Cisco FirePOWER virtual machines running network AMP can be deployed in those scenarios.

NOTE: The Cisco ASAv supports both traditional tiered data center deployments and the fabric-based deployments of Cisco ACI environments. The Cisco ASAv can also be deployed in cloud environments like Amazon Web Services (AWS).

The Cisco ASA with FirePOWER modules can be deployed in geographically dispersed cluster environments.

The following Figure shows an example in which four Cisco ASAs with FirePOWER modules are deployed in two separate sites (site A and site B).


In the example illustrated in the Figure above, the cluster of four Cisco ASAs is fully extended between the two data centers, using the cluster control links (CCL) operating at Layer 2 with a latency of less than 10 milliseconds. A single spanned EtherChannel for transient data is used on the cluster side. The local data links are also configured with EtherChannels at the switch pairs on each site.

TIP: The data VLANs between the switches are not extended to prevent network loops.

The Article from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2730336&seqNum=12

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Fat, Thin, and Fit APs in WLAN Network

December 20 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP, #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network

You should hear of the Fat, Thin, and Fit APs. What are they?

The terms thin and fat have been applied to WLAN access points (APs) in many different ways.

  • Some vendors use thin AP to refer to entry-level/residential-grade products with few advanced features, in comparison to fat APs rich with enterprise network features like VLAN tagging and SNMP-based management.
  • Some use thin AP to refer to products that can't be configured or used on their own, but instead are part of a WLAN switching system that governs both setup and operation. In this case, a fat AP is any stand-alone AP, no matter how extensive that AP's feature set.
  • Some use thin AP to refer to products that offload selected tasks to an upstream server -- for example, communicating with 802.1X Authentication Servers, generating encryption keys, acting as a VPN gateway, or re-routing traffic for cross-network mobility. In comparison, any of these tasks could be performed directly on a fat AP, without relying on an upstream server.

In the autonomous architecture, the WTPs (Wireless Termination Point) completely implement and terminate the 802.11 function so that frames on the wired LAN are 802.3 frames. Each WTP can be independently managed as a separate network entity on the network. The access point in such a network is often called a Fat AP.

FAT APs in Autonomous WLAN Network Architecture


During the initial stages of WLAN deployment, most APs were autonomous APs, and manageable as independent entities in the network. During the past few years, centralized architectures (discussed next) with ACs and WTPs have gained popularity. The primary advantage of the centralized architecture is that it provides network administrators with a structured and hierarchical mode of control for multiple WTPs in the enterprise.

Centralized Architecture

The centralized architecture is a hierarchical architecture that involves a WLAN controller that is responsible for configuration, control, and management of several WTPs. The WLAN controller is also known as the Access Controller (AC). The 802.11 function is split between the WTP and the AC. Because the WTPs in this model have a reduced function as compared to the autonomous architecture, they are also known as Thin APs. Some of the functions on the APs are variable, as discussed in the following section.

Thin APs in Centralized WLAN Network Architecture


Distributed Architecture

In the distributed architecture, the various WTPs can form distributed networks with other WTPs through wired or wireless connections. A mesh network of WTPs is one example of such an architecture. The WTPs in the mesh can be linked with 802.11 links or wired 802.3 links. This architecture is often used in municipal networks and other deployments where an outdoor component is involved. This article does not address the distributed architecture.

WTP Functions Fat, Thin, and Fit APs

To understand the autonomous and centralized architecture, it is useful to look at the functions performed by the APs. We start with the Fat APs, which form the core of the autonomous architecture, followed by the Thin APs, which were specified as part of the WLAN switch- or controller-based centralized architecture. The article will then outline the functions of a new variant called the Fit AP, an optimized version of the AP for centralized architectures.

Fat Access Points

Figure1 shows an example of an autonomous network with a fat access point. The AP is an addressable node in the network with its own IP address on its interfaces. It can forward traffic between the wired and wireless interfaces. It can also have more than one wired interface and can forward traffic between the wired interfaces similar to a Layer 2 or Layer 3 switch. Connectivity to the wired enterprise can be through a Layer 2 or Layer 3 network.

It is important to understand that there is no backhauling of traffic from the Fat AP to another device through tunnels. This aspect is important and is addressed when discussing the other AP types. In addition, Fat APs can provide router-like functions such as the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server capabilities.

Management of the AP is done through a protocol such as the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) or the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for Web-based management and a Command-Line Interface (CLI). To manage multiple APs, the network manager has to connect to each AP through one of these management schemes. Each AP shows up on the network map as a separate node. Any aggregation of the nodes for management and control has to be done at the Network Management System (NMS) level, which involves development of an NMS application.

Fat APs also have enhanced capabilities such as Access Control Lists (ACLs), which permit filtering of traffic for specific WLAN clients. Another significant capability of these devices is configuration and enforcement of Quality of Service (QoS)-related functions. For example, traffic from specific mobile stations might need to have a higher priority than others. Or, you might need to insert and enforce IEEE 802.1p priority or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) for traffic from mobile stations. In summary, these APs act like a switch or router in that they provide many of the functions of such devices.

The downside of such APs is complexity. Fat APs tend to be built on powerful hardware and require complex software. These devices are expensive to install and maintain because of the complexity. Nevertheless, the devices have uses in smaller network installations.

Some Fat AP installations still use a controller at the back end for control and management functions. These controllers lead to a slightly scaled-down version of the Fat AP, called, not surprisingly, a Fit AP, discussed later.

Thin Access Points

As their name indicates, Thin APs are intended to reduce the complexity of APs. An important motivation for this reduction is the location of APs. In several enterprises, APs are plenum-mounted (and thus in hard-to-reach areas) so that they can provide optimum radio connectivity for end stations. In environments like warehouses, this is even more evident. For such reasons, network managers prefer to install APs just once and not have to perform complex maintenance on them.

Thin APs are often known as intelligent antennas, in that their primary function is to receive and transmit wireless traffic. They backhaul the wireless frames to a controller where the frames are processed before being switched to the wired LAN (see the Figure ‘Thin APs in Centralized WLAN Network Architecture’).

The APs use a (typically secure) tunnel to backhaul the wireless traffic to the controller. In their most basic form, Thin APs do not even perform WLAN encryption such as Wired Equivalence Privacy (WEP) or WiFi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2). This encryption is done at the controller the APs just transmit or receive the encrypted wireless frames, thereby keeping the APs simple and avoiding the necessity to upgrade their hardware or software.

The introduction of WPA2 necessitated encryption on the controller. Although WPA was hardware-compatible with WEP and required only a firmware upgrade, WPA2 was not backward-compatible. Instead of replacing APs across the enterprise, network managers could just backhaul the wireless traffic to the controller where the WPA2 decryption was done, and the frames were sent on the wired LAN.

The protocol between the AP and the controller for carrying the control and data traffic was proprietary. Also, there is no capability to manage the AP as a single entity on the Layer 2/3 network it can be managed only through the controller, to which the NMS can communicate through HTTP, SNMP, or CLI/Telnet. A controller can manage and control multiple APs, implying that the controller should be based on powerful hardware and often be able to perform switching and routing functions. Another important requirement is that the connectivity and tunnel between the AP and the AC should ensure low delay for packets between those two entities.

With Thin APs, QoS enforcement and ACL-based filtering are handled at the controller not a problem because all the frames from the AP have to pass through the controller anyway. Centralized control functions for ACLs and QoS are not new they were implemented in networks with Fat APs too. Such installations have controllers that act as the gateway for managing traffic from APs to the wired network. However, the controller function takes on a new dimension with Thin APs, especially with respect to the data plane and forwarding functions. The controller function subsequently was integrated into Ethernet switches that connected the wireless and wired LANs the motivation for the family of devices known as WLAN switches.

The Wireless MAC architecture in this scenario is known as the Remote MAC architecture. The entire set of 802.11 MAC functions is offloaded to the WLAN controller, including the delay-sensitive MAC functions.

Fit Access Points

Fit APs are gaining in popularity in that they try to take advantage of the best of both worlds that is, the Fat APs and the Thin APs. A Fit AP provides the wireless encryption while using the AC for the actual key exchange. This approach is used for newer APs that use the latest wireless chipsets supporting WPA2. The management and policy functions reside on the controller that connects to multiple APs through tunnels.

Also, Fit APs provide additional functions such as DHCP relay for the station to obtain an IP address through DHCP. In addition, Fit APs can perform functions such as VLAN tagging based on the Service Set Identifier (SSID) that the client uses to associate with the AP (when the AP supports multiple SSIDs).

Two types of MAC implementations are possible with Fit APs, known as the Local MAC and the Split MAC architectures. Local MAC is where all the wireless MAC functions are performed at the AP. The complete 802.11 MAC functions, including management and control frame processing, are resident on the APs. These functions include time-sensitive functions (also known as Real Time MAC functions).

The Split MAC architecture divides the implementation of the MAC functions between the AP and the controller. The real-time MAC functions include functions such as beacon generation, probe transmission and response, control frame processing (for example Request to Send and Clear to Send RTS and CTS), retransmission, and so on. The non-real time functions include authentication and deauthentication; association and reassociation; bridging between Ethernet and Wireless LAN; fragmentation; and so on.

Vendors differ in the type of functions that are split between the AP and the controller, and in some cases, even about what constitutes real time. One common implementation of a Fit AP involves local MAC at the AP and control and management functions at the AP.

Reference from http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/press/internet-protocol-journal/back-issues/table-contents-13/wireless-lan-switches.html

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Cisco VoIP and Video Phones to Meet a Range of Needs

December 6 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco IP Phones

Do you have an “easy to use” Cisco IP Phone, such as Cisco IP Phone 8800 Series? Cisco always adds new IP Phones-the cost-effective IP communications to replace traditional phones. What are they? There are 4 main types of VoIP and Video Phones to meet your business needs.

The four series include:

  1. Unified SIP Phone 3900 Series
  2. Unified IP Phone 6900 Series
  3. Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series
  4. Cisco IP Phone 8800 Series














In today's business environment, your organization must meet the needs of a wide range of endpoint users with different communication styles and distinct workspaces. Some users want to communicate through their desk phones. Others prefer wireless devices. Still others lean toward soft clients.

The portfolio of Cisco IP phones includes user-friendly, full-featured IP phones to meet the needs of your entire organization, in areas ranging from:

  • The company lobby to the desks of your busiest managers
  • The manufacturing floor to the executive suite
  • The home office to the branch location and corporate offices, both small and large

Many Cisco IP Phones in the portfolio deliver new modes of collaboration, such as integrated HD voice, video, web conferencing, USB peripherals for extensibility and Bluetooth.

The portfolio includes:

Single- and Multi-Line VoIP Phones
These support a range of communication needs, from low-use to the most active-use environments

Basic to Full-Featured IP Phones
Our phones use Cisco Collaboration Solutions to cost-effectively meet your corporate objectives and boost profits.

HD Video Communications (Select Models)
See how this helps you reduce your travel costs and speed decision-making

Applications from Cisco Developer Partners
Enjoy a more personalized and productive IP phone experience with an array of business applications.

Your Choice of Deployment Options
Support for on-premises, from the cloud, or use a hybrid deployment of the two, based on your business needs

Centralized Management
Simplify administration with remote access. On some models, employees can register and activate phones themselves.


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What You can Do with Cisco AVB?

December 1 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco Technology - IT News

Cisco Simplifies Digitization of Audio Video Networks with IEEE Audio Video Bridging

Do you want more audio-video flexibility without spending too much money? If yes, you can try Cisco’s new AVB. What is Audio Video Bridging?

Audio video (AV) equipment deployments have traditionally been single-purpose, analog, point-to-point connections with one-way links. As AV deployments migrate to digital, they have continued to retain this inflexible point to-point architecture. This dedicated connection model also results in a mass of cabling that is difficult and costly to manage. In contrast, an open-standards based Ethernet infrastructure enables flexibility and transparent interoperability of multi-vendor AV equipment and integration of new services.

How did AVB come about, and what does it all mean? AVB is a set of technical standards created by the IEEE Audio Video Bridging Task Group. The IEEE AVB Task Group is a part of the IEEE 802.1 standards committee. IEEE 802.1 defined a set of standards that provided the means for highly reliable delivery of low-latency, time-synchronized AV streaming services through Layer 2 Ethernet networks.

The IEEE 802.1 Audio Video Bridging (AVB) standard enables this digital transition and accelerates the adoption of Ethernet-based AV deployments that are interoperable. The IEEE 802.1 AVB defines a mechanism whereby the endpoints and the network function as a whole. This allows high-quality AV streaming of professional AV over an Ethernet infrastructure. Instead of one-to-one, the network transport enables many-to-many seamless plug-n-play connections for multiple AV endpoints including talkers and listeners. This helps corporations lower total cost of ownership through fewer cables (CapEx) and no license fees for any proprietary technologies (OpEx). It also provides higher quality, time-synchronized AV with more scalability. This scalability includes a more efficient deployment, installation and management enabling new capabilities.

If you want to see how each standard interacts with AVB and for more about the subject, read the “Cisco Audio Video Bridging Design and Deployment for an Enterprise Network” white paper.


Cisco simplifies digitization of AV networks with AVB support on industry leading switches. With the Cisco IOS XE Software Release 16.3, Cisco has introduced support for the IEEE 802.1 AVB standard on select Cisco Catalyst 3850 and select Cisco Catalyst 3650 switches. It delivers the highest-capacity 1-,10- and 40-Gigabit Ethernet ports in the industry.

Cisco implements the AVB standards on select Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series Switches.

The Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series Switches include our widely deployed, industry leading managed access and aggregation switches. They are designed to deliver a comprehensive set of features to provide the best application experience, the highest levels of security, precise control and management of the network. They offer industry-leading scalability in the fixed configuration category of switches. As a result, they can be deployed as aggregation or access switches in large networks or as core switches in smaller networks.

Cisco’s Unified Access Data Plane application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) powers the switches and can enable uniform wired-wireless policy enforcement, application visibility and control (AVC), flexibility and application optimization. Cisco Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series Switches support full IEEE 802.3at Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+), Cisco Universal Power over Ethernet, modular and field-replaceable network modules, RJ45 and fiber-based downlink interfaces, redundant fans and power supplies and innovative power-sharing functions to achieve a flexible and advanced redundant configuration. With speeds that reach 10 Gbps, Cisco Catalyst 3850 Multigigabit Ethernet Switches support current and next-generation wireless speeds and standards—including 802.11ac Wave 2—on existing cabling infrastructure.

Quite simply, these switches are designed to deliver a comprehensive set of features to provide the best application experience, the highest levels of security, and precise control and management of the network.

The Cisco Catalyst 3850 and 3650 switches offer industry-leading scalability in the fixed configuration category of switches. As a result, they can be deployed as aggregation or access switches in large networks or as core switches in smaller networks.


Cisco has also added rich next-generation capabilities to this platform.

Some examples include:

  • Programmability
  • AVB
  • MPLS
  • Services discovery gateway
  • Network as a sensor and enforcer
  • Encapsulated remote switchport analysis

Try using a Cisco Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series switches to provide AVB. Whether you're in hospitality, government, enterprise or another industry, Cisco AVB is an ideal solution. Deploy it into your current audio-video setup: in conference rooms, auditoriums, and more.

Reference From http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/switches/at-a-glance-c45-737488.pdf

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Introducing Cisco Software-Defined Storage Solutions

November 23 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Technology, #IT, #Data Center

Today the Storage plays a more and more important role in the data center: from storing email messages and documents to saving business-critical information, intellectual property, and transaction detail. As businesses continue to become more connected, the old ways of storing and archiving data are changing to accommodate growing amounts of data and demand for anytime, anywhere access to information.

Historically, IT organizations transitioned from systems with individual disk drives to storage arrays that allowed disk drives to be grouped together to form a larger area of capacity. When fast and easy access to more capacity was needed, storage area networks (SANs) and network attached storage (NAS) emerged to deliver capacity over the network. More recently, integrated systems and hyper-converged infrastructure have been added to networks to simplify resource acquisition and deployment and facilitate easy scaling. As companies try to balance storage access, performance, and cost, software-defined storage is becoming more popular, taking this evolution a step farther.

Software-defined storage is the next phase of server virtualization technology, moving beyond virtual machines to virtual data stores. It combines industry-standard x86-architecture servers that are optimized for direct-attached storage (DAS) with a distributed software abstraction layer. This intelligent software transforms systems into a single, logical pool of cost-effective, scale-out storage resources that are easily integrated and managed within your data center.

Cisco Solutions for Software-Defined Storage

Our solutions provide the storage flexibility you need to support growing amounts of data and deliver fast access to information and innovation. You can choose from a variety of systems and expansion cards according to the capacity and performance needs of your users and applications. Our modular approach lets you:

• Reduce risk and complexity: You need confidence that your software-defined infrastructure will work right the first time. Cisco’s collaboration and validation with a large partner ecosystem of software vendors gives you a choice of proven solutions and reference architectures while helping your IT staff integrate storage innovation with your IT processes and business applications at low risk. As a result, you can easily procure the solution you need and accelerate implementation and deployment.

Cisco Solutions Deliver the Foundation for Software-Defined Storage Deployments

Target Environments

  • File, block, and object storage
  • Email servers
  • Collaboration environments
  • Video surveillance archiving
  • Content distribution networks
  • Data protection solutions
  • Private cloud storage

• Gain versatility: The Cisco Unified Computing System (Cisco UCS) portfolio offers a variety of server options for rightsizing your software-defined storage deployments. You can deploy Cisco UCS C-Series Rack Servers to support many common storage scenarios, and use Cisco UCS S-Series Storage Servers when you need highly scalable and available storage infrastructure (Figure 1).

• Scale on demand: You can scale the storage capacity, performance, and protocols used in your software-defined storage infrastructure at your pace and with a smaller increment of scale than with traditional large-scale storage solutions. With the flexibility to choose what to scale and when to scale it, you can start with a small configuration and expand to petabytes of capacity, and you can distribute I/O operations among servers to accelerate I/O operations.

• Improve the efficiency of your IT operations: Cisco UCS Manager provides the automation you need to be efficient. Role- and policybased management makes it easy to deploy terabytes to petabytes of storage capacity in minutes. Cisco UCS service profiles and storage profiles extend these capabilities, allowing you to specify the ways that servers and disk drives should be identified, configured, connected, and used. You can configure hundreds of storage servers as easily as you can configure one, in a repeatable manner.

• Reduce vendor lock-in: Whether you need to support a remote or branch office or a large enterprise data center, our broad ecosystem of partners offers what you need. We work together to test, validate, and document joint solutions so that you can get your softwaredefined storage solutions up and running quickly and with confidence.

Next Steps Call your Cisco sales representative or authorized partner to find out how Cisco UCS solutions can help you create the best software-defined storage solution for your business and applications.

From https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/data-center-virtualization/software-defined-storage-solutions/software-defined-solution.pdf


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