Wireless Access Point (WAP) is essentially hardware equipment that enables wireless devices to connect to wireless networks, via standards such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and so on. The WAP device typically connects to a wired network, and acts as a communication interface between the wireless devices and wired devices on the network.
The WAP device enables the transmission of data between wireless and wired devices. For example, in an office setup multiple users can print documents from their workstations or laptops that are physically connected to the network, with the help of a wireless printer that is located at a central location in the office. The WAP device acts as a central hub for sending and receiving data via WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks).
The usage of WLAN and WAP has become quite common in offices, homes and educational institutions. Before the advent of wireless networking, setting up a computer network for home, corporate or institutional use was quite tedious and time-consuming, as it involved the installation of numerous cables to ensure network access for all the network devices being deployed. Presently WAP devices are designed to work with standards to send and receive data via radio frequencies. This keeps the usage of cabling to a bare minimum. The standards and frequencies are prescribed by IEEE (Institute of Electric and Electronic Engineers), and nearly all WAP devices use IEEE 802.11 standards.
WAP devices are widely used for the following environments:
Corporate organizations use a number of WAP devices and attach them to a traditional wired network, in order to give wireless access to the office LAN. Within the office setup, users have the advantage of network access coupled with mobility.
- Hot spot
Hot spots are used for public access to the internet. Wireless devices can access the Internet by directly connecting to the network present at these hot spots. Hot spots can be found in hotels, airports, coffee houses, malls, and so on.
- Home wireless networks
Home wireless networks use wireless routers in conjunction with broadband modems to provide wireless access within a home environment.
The wireless network access modes are as follows:
- Infrastructure mode
The infrastructure mode is the most commonly used mode for wireless Internet access. It uses WAP devices to enable wireless devices to communicate with the wired network. A single WAP device attached to a wired network and a group of wireless devices is known as a Basic Service Set (BSS).
- Ad-hoc mode
In a wireless ad-hoc network, devices communicate with each other directly, without the aid of a WAP device. It is also known as peer to peer mode or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS).
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By default the Cisco Catalyst 2950 is not configured for remote administration. Basic configuration to enable remote administration on the Cisco Catalyst 2950 includes configuring an IP address on the switch and also enabling telnet access. Once these configurations are completed, the Cisco Catalyst 2950 can be managed by IP address.
Things You'll Need
- Cisco serial console cable
- Windows XP computer connected to the local network
- Privileged exec password for the Cisco Catalyst 2950
- IP address, subnet mask and gateway IP address for the switch
Instructions to Manage Cisco Catalyst 2950 by IP Address
1. Connect the Cisco serial console cable into the console port on the Cisco Catalyst 2950 switch and connect the other end of the cable into the 9-pin serial port, which is usually located on the back or side of the Windows XP computer.
2. Click the "Start" button and select the "Run" box and type "hypertrm" and press the "Enter" key and the HyperTerminal program will appear. Type a name for the session, such as "Cisco 2950" in the "Name:" field and click the "OK" button. Click the "Connect using:" drop-down menu, then click the "Com port" used to connect the Windows XP computer to the Cisco 2950 switch. Press the "Enter" key. Then click the "Bits per second:" drop-down menu and select "9600." Click "None" in the "Flow Control" drop-down menu and press the "Enter" key.
3. Press the "Enter" key and the Cisco command prompt will appear. Type "enable" and press "Enter." Then enter the password if requested.
4. Type "config term" and press the "Enter" key to enter "Configuration Mode" on the switch.
5. Type "line vty 0 4" and press the "Enter" key. Type "password abcd," replacing "abcd" with the password you wish to use to secure telnet access. Press the "Enter" key. Then type "login" and then press the "Enter" key.
6. Type "interface Vlan1" and press the "Enter" key. Then type "ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0," replacing the "10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0" with the IP address and subnet mask assigned to the switch. Press the "Enter" key.
7. Type "exit" and press the "Enter" key. Then type "ip default-gateway x.x.x.x," replacing "x.x.x.x" with the gateway IP address for the switch. Press the "Enter" key. Then type "end" and press the "Enter" key. Type "copy run start" and press the "Enter" key to save the configuration. Type "exit" and press the "Enter" key.
8. Click "Start" on the Windows XP computer. Click "Run" and then type "cmd" and press the "Enter" key. Type "telnet x.x.x.x" on the command line, replacing "x.x.x.x" with the IP address just configured on the Cisco Catalyst 2950. Press the "Enter" key. Type the telnet password just programmed into the Cisco Catalyst 2950 when requested. Press the "Enter" key and the Cisco command prompt should display so you can now manage the switch over the network.
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There's a lot more to LinkedIn than just connecting with the people you know. Here's a look at 12 features, from a business card digitizer to a resume builder, that enhance your LinkedIn experience.
Need a break? Check out LinkedIn's version of Tetris, DropIn. The game, which was developed during a Hackday competition, uses blocks comprised of your contacts' profile pictures and LinkedIn "in" logos.
To play, log in to your LinkedIn account and visit LinkedIn Labs. Much like the original Tetris, DropIn uses your keyboard to rotate and place the blocks. Hover over a picture to review the contact's name, job info and latest status update. If your boss asks, you're networking.
Turn Business Cards into Contacts
Whether you're at a trade show, conference or business meeting, you’ll likely accrue a number of business cards that get lost at the bottom of your brief case. LinkedIn's Cardmunch iPhone app, however, takes your business cards, digitizes them and adds them to your LinkedIn contacts in a few quick steps.
Once you've downloaded the app, simply take a picture of the business card, and the information is converted to a contact automatically. Cardmunch will also show you LinkedIn profile information and connections you may have in common.
Customize the Updates on Your LinkedIn Homepage
If your LinkedIn homepage is too cluttered with updates, posts and activity from your connections, pare it down by customizing the types of posts that you see.
To do this, visit your Settings page. In the Account tab, select "Customize the updates you see on your home page." By default, option is automatically checked; uncheck the items you want to hide.
Listen to Today's News Headlines
If you're in a rush and don't want to spend time flipping through the day's headlines, LinkedIn's "SpeechIn" is a quick fix to get you snippets of news while you're on the go.
Visit speechin.linkedinlabs.com to get started, then tap the flame button to begin the text-to-speech reading. Tap the forward or backward buttons to advance to the next headline or repeat the last one. Otherwise, the app will continue reading the headlines. Tap the flame icon again to pause the reading.
Browse LinkedIn Securely
If you're accessing LinkedIn from open Wi-Fi hotspots, your security could be at risk. Check out LinkedIn's HTTPS browsing feature: an opt-in setting that provides encrypted communications and secure identification of a network's Web server.
To turn it on, select "Settings" from the drop-down menu that appears when you hover over the link to your name in the top-right corner. In the "Profile" tab at the bottom, select "Manage Security Settings." Next, check the box and save your settings.
Read What Your Connections Read
LinkedIn Today, which is a little more than a year old, is a social news service that aggregates the top headlines and stories related to your industry and based on what your connections share. Here, you can tailor the stories you see to your specific interests, save stories to read later and share ones you like with your connections.
Build a Resume From Your LinkedIn Profile
If you keep your LinkedIn profile up to date—and need a hard copy of your resume—give LinkedIn's Resume Builder a try.
Once connected to your account, the app takes the information from your LinkedIn profile and generates a resume. You can choose from a number of templates—from "classic" to "law" to "executive"—and edit any blank fields right on the page. LinkedIn's Resume Builder also lets you save your resumes, share them and keep them private, if you prefer.
Connect With People You Already Know
The new "People You May Know" feature, currently in beta, uses LinkedIn's algorithm that takes into account factors such as your existing network, past workplaces and where you've gone to school to produce a categorized portfolio of potential contacts.
A few noteworthy features in this update: the capability to toggle between the networks by clicking the icons at the top to sort your potential contacts; selecting the "Connect All" button to connect with all the individuals in that particular list at once; and infinite scrolling so you don't have to click through pages.
Browse 'Groups' Statistics
Curious about whether a LinkedIn Group is for you? Check out the Group's "Statistics" page to make your decision. Find this by navigating to the "More..." tab in the Group's menu, then selecting "Group Statistics."
Here, you'll find information such as the demographics of the group, including the members' seniority, function, location and industry; growth statistics, including new members; and activity details, such as how many jobs were posted and how often people start discussions.
Showcase Presentations with SlideShare
Earlier this month, LinkedIn acquired SlideShare, a professional content-sharing community. To add your SlideShare presentations to your LinkedIn profile page, select "More" from the top navigation bar and click "Get More Applications." Scroll to the "SlideShare Presentations" app, and it to your profile.
Browse Profiles Anonymously
If you don't want others to see information about you when you look at their profile, change the following setting: Navigate to your settings page and click the link for "Select what others see when you've viewed their profile." In the form that pops up, select the appropriate option—either anonymous profile characteristics or anonymity. Then click "save changes."
Visualize Your Network with InMaps
InMaps is an interactive, visual representation of your professional network that helps you better "understand the relationships between you and your entire set of LinkedIn connections," according to LinkedIn.
To try InMaps, visit its homepage and log in with LinkedIn. The map it generates is color-coded to represent different affiliations or groups from your career, such as previous employers, college classmates or industries you've worked in. As you zoom in, bigger names represent people who are the most connected with that specific cluster.
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The Wi-Fi giant surprises with an 802.11ac add-on to their popular high-end 3600 AP. Too soon? Perhaps not.
Cisco recently briefed me on an interesting product direction they discussed at their latest Cisco Live event, an add-on 802.11ac module for their popular 3600 series of Cisco APs. In addition to being one of the few four-antenna .11n products on the market, the 3600 has a modular architecture that enables the bolting on of additional functionality. Cisco previously announced a security monitor module for off-channel ClearnAir scanning, and the .11ac module will support 3x3:3 1.3 Gbps capability. Both modules are scheduled for availability in 1Q13, a little ahead of my prediction with respect to 802.11ac in the enterprise.
There is little doubt that the as-yet-unfinished 802.11ac standard will eventually supersede 802.11n. This will take many years - at a recent symposium I Chaired for the Boston Section of the IEEE Communications Society, the panel of analysts assembled pretty much settled on 2015 as the timeframe for critical mass for 802.11n in the enterprise - with one thinking it could in fact be much later than that. I'm expecting reasonable numbers of enterprise-class .11ac products to appear in the second half of next year. As I noted above, I didn't expect an announcement to that effect so soon, and especially from industry leader Cisco. Aggressive? Certainly. But the evolution to .11ac is inevitable, and implementing the functionality in an add-on module eliminates the cannibalization risk that would otherwise be present. Indeed, such might actually spur sales of the 3600 as the technological risk is minimized.
The only risk, in fact, might be with respect to cost, as pricing for the module has not been announced. Nonetheless, the benefits of a modular implementations are once again reinforced, even if the assumed success of .11ac remains well off in the future.
Reading from http://www.networkworld.com/community/node/80833
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The Cisco Wireless Services Module (WiSM) is part of the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller family. WiSM works with other Cisco appliances to deliver a wireless solution, which supports voice, wireless data and video applications. The Cisco WiSM integrates into the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switch, a Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 720 and a Cisco 7600 router. Troubleshooting the WiSM is required when the signals are not getting through to the router. The troubleshooting begins with the WiSM connection.
Things You Need as follows:
- Cisco WiSM module
- Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 720
Steps to Troubleshoot Cisco System's Wireless LAN Module
1. Type "enable" to enter the privileged mode of the router or switch. The privilege mode will look like this "Router#"; it is the editor mode in which you enter router commands. This privileged editor mode is automatic. All of the troubleshooting commands will occur in privileged mode. For all of these commands, if there is a period at the end, ignore it.
2. Type the command "show version." It is the starting point of any troubleshooting. This displays information relating to the current configuration. One feature displayed is the IOS version running. The WiSM requires a Supervisor 720 on an IOS version 12.2(18). If it does not have 720, or the correct IOS version, there will be problems with the module.
3. Type"show module." Use this command to verify that the Cat6k has a WiSM card and the Supervisor 720 engine. It will also show the number of ports on the card.
4. Type "show wism status" to verify the location of the WiSM module. This information may be useful in locating other configurations on the module.
5. Type "show wism module 4 controller 2 status." This will verify the WiSM status. You will be looking for an "oper-up" information piece to verify the controller's operational status. The module 4 portion identifies the location of the slot in controller 2; it might be different.
6. Type "show interface trunk." This will verify that WiSM and VLANs have trunking defined. If you suspect that a problem is occurring with the VLAN, this would be your starting troubleshooting point.
7. Type"Show etherchannel load balance." This command will verify the correct load balance algorithm. The algorithm should be src-dst-ip. If this algorithm is not present, use the "port-channel load-balance src-dst-ip" command in config mode to reset it.
8. Type "show interface summary" to check the status of the configuration from the WiSM side. Here a summary view of the interface appears. You will see interface name, the port vlan id, the IP address, the type and the application manager.
More Notes: Troubleshoot and Configure Initial Wireless Services Module (WiSM) Setup
Mobile Cloud Traffic to Account for 71 Percent, or 7.6 Exabytes per Month, of Total Mobile Data Traffic by 2016, Compared to 45 Percent, or 269 Petabytes per Month, in 2011
According to the Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast for 2011 to 2016, worldwide mobile data traffic will increase 18-fold over the next five years, reaching 10.8 exabytes per month — or an annual run rate of 130 exabytes — by 2016.
The expected sharp increase in mobile traffic is due, in part, to a projected surge in the number of mobile Internet – connected devices, which will exceed the number of people on earth (2016 world population estimate of 7.3 billion; source: United Nations). During 2011−2016 Cisco anticipates that global mobile data traffic will outgrow global fixed data traffic by three times.
The forecast predicts an annual run rate of 130 exabytes of mobile data traffic, equivalent to:
33 billion DVDs.
4.3 quadrillion MP3 files (music/audio).
813 quadrillion short message service (SMS) text messages.
An exabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to 1 quintillion bytes.
This mobile data traffic increase represents a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 78 percent spanning the forecast period. The incremental amount of traffic being added to the mobile Internet between 2015 and 2016 alone is approximately three times the estimated size of the entire mobile Internet in 2012. The following trends are driving these significant increases:
1. More Streamed Content: With the consumer expectations increasingly requiring on-demand or streamed content versus simply downloaded content, mobile cloud traffic will increase, growing 28-fold from 2011 to 2016, a CAGR of 95 percent.
2. More Mobile Connections: There will be more than 10 billion mobile Internet-connected devices in 2016, including machine-to-machine (M2M) modules — exceeding the world’s projected population at that time of 7.3 billion. (One M2M application is the use of wireless networks to update digital billboards. This allows advertisers to display different messages based on time of day or day-of-week and allows quick global changes for messages, such as pricing changes for gasoline).
3. Enhanced Computing of Devices: Mobile devices are becoming more powerful and thus able to consume and generate more data traffic. Tablets are a prime example of this trend generating traffic levels that will grow 62-fold from 2011 to 2016 — the highest growth rate of any device category tracked in the forecast. The amount of mobile data traffic generated by tablets in 2016 (1 exabyte per month) will be four times the total amount of monthly global mobile data traffic in 2010 (237 petabytes per month).
4. Faster Mobile Speeds: Mobile network connection speed is a key enabler for mobile data traffic growth. More speed means more consumption, and Cisco projects mobile speeds (including 2G, 3G and 4G networks) to increase nine-fold from 2011 to 2016.
5. More Mobile Video: Mobile users want the best experiences they can have and that generally means mobile video, which will comprise 71 percent of all mobile data traffic by 2016.
The Cisco study also projects that 71 percent of all smartphones and tablets (1.6 billion) could be capable of connecting to an Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) mobile network by 2016. From a broader perspective, 39 percent of all global mobile devices (more than 4 billion), could be IPv6-capable by 2016.
Impact of Mobile Devices/Connections
a. The increasing number of wireless devices and nodes accessing mobile networks worldwide is the primary contributor to traffic growth. By 2016, there will be more than 8 billion handheld or personal mobile-ready devices and nearly 2 billion machine-to-machine connections, such as GPS systems in cars, asset tracking systems in shipping and manufacturing sectors and medical applications for making patient records more readily available.
b. Smartphones, laptops and other portable devices will drive about 90 percent of global mobile data traffic by 2016.
c. M2M traffic will represent 5 percent of 2016 global mobile data traffic while residential broadband mobile gateways will account for the remaining 5 percent of global mobile data traffic.
---Original resources from m2mworldnews.com
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When Cisco came out with its Unified Compute System (UCS) blades a couple of years back, there was plenty of skepticism about how the company would do by venturing into the pastures new of the server landscape. Last month's announcement that the company passed the 10,000 customer milestone for UCS sales laid many of those doubts to rest.
With IDC rating blades as the fastest growing server segment during the next several years, this bodes well for Cisco's growing presence in the marketplace.
"We're hearing from customers who are reporting all-in savings in the range of 40 percent on the cost of computing," said Todd Brannon, senior manager, Data Center and Virtualization, Cisco. "The savings stem from a variety of sources: lower capex as the platform efficiently scales, reduced administrator time, density/power savings and reduced software licensing costs as more workload lands on fewer servers."
One customer told Brannon he could let his CTO take a Cisco blade straight out of the box, insert it into a chassis slot, and as the system identified and integrated the new resource into the available pool, they congratulated him on his first server deployment.
New Cisco UCS Blades
Since our last snapshot around two years ago, Cisco server blade releases have been largely in lock step with the roll-out of Intel Xeon processor roadmap. Two years ago, the company released the Cisco UCS B200 M1 and B250 M1 blades, which are based on the Intel Xeon processor 5500 series. In the past year, it introduced the Cisco UCS B200 M2 and B250 M2, both based on the Intel Xeon Processor 5600 series.
The UCS B200 blade server is a half-width, 2-socket blade server with up to 192 GB of memory. It can deliver substantial throughput and scalability.
The Cisco UCS B250 M2 Extended Memory Blade Server is aimed at maximizing performance and capacity for demanding virtualization and large dataset applications. It is a full-width, 2-socket blade server that supports up to 384 GB of memory.
In addition, the Cisco UCS B230 M2 and B440 M2 blade servers are based on the Intel Xeon processor E7 family. These two servers are follow-on models to earlier-released M1 versions that were based on the Intel Xeon Processor 7500 series
The Cisco UCS B230 M2 Blade Server is a two-socket server supporting up to 20 cores and 512 GB of memory. The B230 M2 extends the capabilities of the Cisco Unified Computing System by delivering higher levels of performance, efficiency and reliability in a more compact, half-width form factor.
The UCS B440 M2 is a 4-socket blade that can support up to 40 cores and 512GB of memory. It is best for enterprise-class applications.
"We will continue to roll out blades targeted at both infrastructure and enterprise-class applications," said Brannon. "Last year, we delivered nine benchmarking world records at the launch of the Intel Xeon processor E7 family."
Cisco UCS Racks
Cisco offers more than just blades. It also provides a range of UCS rack servers. Much like it has done with blades, Cisco has transitioned the rackmount servers from M1 to M2 models to support the newest Intel Xeon Processor 5600 or E7 family.
The Cisco UCS C200 M2 and UCS B210 M2 servers are high-density, 2-socket rackmount servers built for production-level network infrastructure, web services, and mainstream data center, branch and remote-office applications. The Cisco UCS C250 M2 server is a high-performance, memory-intensive, 2-socket, 2-rack unit (RU) rackmount server designed for virtualization and large dataset workloads.
Two rackmount servers use the Intel Xeon processor E7 family. The Cisco UCS C260 M2 Rack-Mount Server is a high-density, 2-socket platform that offers compact performance for enterprise-critical applications. The C260 M2 server's maximum 1TB of memory and 16 drives make it good for memory-bound or disk-intensive applications.
The Cisco UCS C460 M2 Rack-Mount Server has enough processing power, memory and local storage to house mission-critical applications, as well as server consolidation of resource-intense workloads.
"Cisco UCS is a next-generation data center server platform that unites compute, network, storage access and virtualization into a cohesive system designed to outperform previous server architectures, increase operational agility and flexibility while potentially dramatically reducing overall data center costs," said Brannon. "The system is programmable using single point, model-based management to simplify and speed deployment of applications and services running in bare-metal, virtualized, and cloud-computing environments."
---Reading from serverwatch.com
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Quick Look at Cisco RV180W Wireless-N Multifunction Router
Pros: Easy to set up. Detailed management interface. IPv6 ready. Supports VLANs. Gigabit Ethernet.
Cons: Sluggish interface. Web filtering rules are too basic. Can't tell when VPN users are connected. Confusing VPN setup.
Bottom Line: The Cisco RV180W Wireless-N Multifunction Router offers security-conscious small businesses an all-in-one box to set up VPN access for remote employees, basic routing, wireless, and firewall. It's also future-proof, supporting IPv6 by default.
The Cisco RV180W Wireless-N Multifunction Router ($246 MSRP) makes it easy to set up a firewall, a VPN server, a router, and a wireless network with a single, compact box. The company also offers the RV180 ($182), with all the same features minus the wireless network. The RV180W addresses a lot of the things that were missing in the Cisco RV110W Wireless-N VPN Firewall, such as increasing the number of VPN users supported and adding Gigabit Ethernet ports.
The RV180W aims to offer security, remote access and simple configuration. Even though Cisco is marketing this dual-band wireless router as a small business product, it is comparable to some of the higher-end consumer routers tested recently, such as theNetgear N900 Wireless Dual Band Gigabit Router WNDR4500 and AirStation Nfiniti High PowerGiga Wireless-N Router & Access Point from Buffalo Technology. Pricewise, the RV180W is comparable to Netgear's N900, although it has more features in common with Buffalo's AirStation line of routers.
The Cisco RV180W has one WAN port for Internet connectivity and four Gigabit LAN ports in the back. There are two external antennas on the back for wireless networking. Square and compact, it measures 1.18” x 5.91” x 5.91” (HWD) and weighs a mere 0.61 lbs.
The glossy front panel has indicator lights for power, wireless activity, Internet connectivity, and for each of the four LAN ports. The front panel also has an AP indicator that lights up steady green when the router is being used as an access point. The Bridge indicator is green when it is acting as a bridge.
The back panel has a power button, a reset button to reboot the router or to restore factory settings, and a port to plug in the AC power cable. Unlike the previous RV110W, the four LAN ports on the back of the RV180W support Gigabit Ethernet. While Gigabit Ethernet is not yet a must-have on most business routers, the increasing number of applications, file-sharing, and video streaming within the office make it a should-have.
Like the earlier RV110W, the R180W would be attractive to many businesses because of its built-in VPN server. Considering how expensive and time-consuming it can be to deploy a VPN server for remote workers to connect and access office printers, databases, and applications, a router with built-in VPN is a bargain. The RV180W supports both the widely-supported PPTP and QuickVPN protocols and allows up to 10 VPN connections at time. This is an improvement over the RV110W, which supported only five users at a time.
Cisco upgraded the RV180W to broadcast on both the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz-band and included WDS bridging/repeating and WEP/WPA/WPA2 consumer and Enterprise wireless security. The router can also be configured to broadcast on four VLAN-based SSIDs. Businesses would appreciate the various options available for setting up the wireless network.
The well-organized Web interface is chock-full of firewall and routing options, including port forwarding, firewall access rules, quality of service, and creating VPN user accounts.
The RV180W supports IPv6 out of the box, making it a sound investment for any business planning to upgrade their networks to adopt the newer Internet address standard down the road. Businesses should pay careful attention to make sure new equipment have IPv6 support, or the eventual transition is going to be really painful.
Cisco Quick Start
Setting up the RV180W was a snap, as I followed the enclosed printed Quick Start Guide to connect the router to the computer and to the network. When I opened up the Web interface with the default IP address and login credentials, the Setup Wizard launched automatically. The entire process took less than 10 minutes, and included setting up security on the wireless network, changing the password for the default account, configuring the router's WAN gateway settings, and testing to make sure I had Internet connectivity. Plenty of on-screen tips and explanations were available at every step.
I also had the option to configure the router to broadcast a different MAC address. Many ISPs secure customer connections by locking the IP address to a specific hardware MAC address to prevent someone from swapping routers or firewalls without the administrator's knowledge. The RV180W can broadcast the MAC address of the computer being used to run the Setup Wizard, or an entirely different address (such as the previous router being replaced).
I appreciated the Setup Wizard's focus on security. The interface warned me when I selected a password that wasn't strong enough and defaulted to a secure wireless setup by default. When I tried to set up an open wireless network, the wizard displayed several warnings.
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It is important to understand how to access switch ports. The 3550 switch uses the type slot/port command, just like a 2621 router and just like the 3550 switch. For example, Fastethernet 0/3 is 10/100BaseT port 3.
The 3550 switch type slot/port command can be used with either the interface command or the show command. The interface command allows you to set interface specific configurations. The 3550 switch has only one slot: zero (0), just like the 1900.
Network Layout: Work with the saved network that you used to configure devices in lab 8.27.
1. To configure an interface on a 3550 switch, go to global configuration mode and use the interface command as shown.
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CTRL/Z
Async Async interface
BVI Bridge-Group Virtual Interface
Dialer Dialer interface
FastEthernet FastEthernet IEEE 802.3
Group-Async Async Group interface
Lex Lex interface
Loopback Loopback interface
Multilink Multilink-group interface
Null Null interface
Port-channel Ethernet Channel of interfaces
Transparent Transparent interface
Tunnel Tunnel interface
Virtual-Template Virtual Template interface
Virtual-TokenRing Virtual TokenRing
Vlan Catalyst Vlans
fcpa Fiber Channel
range interface range command
2. The next output asks for the slot. Since the 3550 switch is not modular, there is only one slot, which is 0, although it lists 0-2 for some odd reason. However, you can only type in 0 as the slot in this program. Any other slot number will give you an error. The next output gives us a slash (/) to separate the slot/port configuration.
3550A(config)#interface fastethernet ?
<0-2> FastEthernet interface number
3550A(config)#interface fastethernet 0?
3550A(config)#interface fastethernet 0/?
<0-12> FastEthernet interface number
3. After the 0/configuration command, the above output shows the amount of ports you can configure. The output below shows the completed command.
3550A(config)#interface fastethernet 0/4
4. Once you are in interface configuration mode, the prompt changes to (config-if). After you are at the interface prompt, you can use the help commands to see the available commands.
Interface configuration commands:
arp Set arp type (arpa, probe, snap) or timeout
bandwidth Set bandwidth informational parameter
carrier-delay Specify delay for interface transitions
cdp CDP interface subcommands
channel-group Etherchannel/port bundling configuration
default Set a command to its defaults
delay Specify interface throughput delay
description Interface specific description
dot1x IEEE 802.1X subsystem
duplex Configure duplex operation.
exit Exit from interface configuration mode
help Description of the interactive help system
hold-queue Set hold queue depth
ip Interface Internet Protocol config commands
keepalive Enable keepalive
load-interval Specify interval for load calculation for an interface
logging Configure logging for interface
mac-address Manually set interface MAC address
mls mls interface commands
mvr MVR per port configuration
no Negate a command or set its defaults
ntp Configure NTP
You can switch between interface configurations by using the int fa 0/# command at any time from global configuration mode.
5. Let’s look at the duplex and speed configurations for a switch port.
auto Enable AUTO duplex configuration
full Force full duplex operation
half Force half-duplex operation
10 Force 10 Mbps operation
100 Force 100 Mbps operation
auto Enable AUTO speed configuration
6. Since the switch port’s duplex and speed settings are already set to auto by default, you do not need to change the switch port settings. It is recommended that you allow the switch port to auto negotiate speed and duplex settings in most situations. In a rare situation, when it is required to manually set the speed and duplex of a switch port, you can use the following configuration.
Duplex will not be set until speed is set to non-auto value
full duplex - transmission of data in two directions simultaneously. It has a higher throughput than half duplex.
There are no collision domains with this setting
Both sides must have the capability of being set to full duplex
Both sides of the connection must be configured with full duplex
Each side transmits and receives at full bandwidth in both directions
7. Notice in the above command that to run full duplex, you must set the speed to non-auto value.
8. In addition to the duplex and speed commands that can be configured on the switch port, you also can turn on what is called portfast. The portfast command allows a switch port to come up quickly. Typically a switch port waits 50 seconds for spanning-tree to go through its"gotta make sure there are no loops!" cycle. However, if you turn port fast on, then you better be sure you do not create a physical loop on the switch network. A spanning tree loop can severely hurt or bring your network down. Here is how you would enable port fast on a switch port.
bpdufilter Don't send or receive BPDUs on this interface
bpduguard Don't accept BPDUs on this interface
cost Change an interface's spanning tree port path cost
guard Change an interface's spanning tree guard mode
link-type Specify a link type for spanning tree protocol use
port-priority Change an interface's spanning tree port priority
portfast Enable an interface to move directly to forwarding on link up
stack-port Enable stack port
vlan VLAN Switch Spanning Tree
9. The command above shows the available options for the spanning-tree command. We want to use the portfast command.
%Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a single
host. Connecting hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, etc... to this
interface when portfast is enabled, can cause temporary bridging loops.
Use with CAUTION
%Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0/4 but will only
have effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode.
10. Notice the message the switch provides when enabling portfast. Although it seems like the command did not take effect, as long as the port is in access mode (discussed in a minute), the port will now be in portfast mode.
11. After you make any changes you want to the interfaces, you can view the different interfaces with the show interface command. The switch output below shows the command used to view a 10/100BaseT interface on the 3550 switch.
3550A#sh int f0/4
FastEthernet0/4 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 00b0.c5e4.e2cf (bia 00b0.c5e4.e2cf)
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Full duplex, 100Mb/s
input flow-control is off, output flow-control is off
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input never, output 1w6d, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue :0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
1 packets input, 64 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
0 watchdog, 0 multicast, 0 pause input
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
1 packets output, 64 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 3 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
12. In addition to the show interface command, you can use the show running-config command to see the interface configuration as well.
switchport mode dynamic desirable
switchport mode dynamic desirable
13. You can administratively set a name for each interface on the 3550 switch. Like the hostname, the descriptions are only locally significant. For the 3550 series switch, use the description command. You can use spaces with the description command, but you can use underlines if you need to.
To set the descriptions, you need to be in interface configuration mode. From interface configuration mode, use the description command to describe each interface.
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CTRL/Z
3550A(config)#int fa 0/4
3550A(config-if)#description Marketing VLAN
3550A(config-if)#int fa 0/10
3550A(config-if)#description trunk to Building 3
In the configuration example above, we set the description on both port 4 and 10.
14. Once you have configured the descriptions you want on each interface, you can then view the descriptions with either the show interface command, or show running-configcommand. View the configuration of the Ethernet interface 0/9 by using the show interface ethernet 0/4 command.
3550A#sh int fa 0/4
FastEthernet0/4 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 00b0.1a09.2097 (bia 00b0.1a09.2097)
Description: Marketing VLAN
15. Use the show running-config command to view the interface configurations as well.
description "Marketing VLAN"
Notice in the above switch output that the sh int fa0/4 command and the show run command both show the description command set on an interface.
---Original reading at content.digiex.net
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