The fact that online shoppers in China are three times more likely to desire a clear return policy than online shoppers in the United States should suggest to e-commerce businesses that a universal payment platform will not necessarily translate to all shoppers in different countries. A recent survey found that while online shopping itself may be a nearly universal behavior, and habits differ slightly based on nationality.
Pitney Bowes Inc. found that while shopping online is almost universal – 93 percent of those surveyed had purchased products online and nearly half said they had done so in the previous month – there were slight variations in feelings toward prices, selection of products, the checkout process, the shipping process and shipping costs.
For example, French consumers are seven times more likely to want to actively track an order than Japanese consumers, while Canadian consumers were half as likely to care about an accurate delivery date than either Chinese and South Korean consumers.
" … To be successful, retailers need to ensure they can offer a simple and seamless online shopping experience, and have a clear understanding of consumers’ purchasing, shipping and communications preferences in each market," said Pitney Bowes's Jay Oxton in a press release.
In an increasingly globalized world, the internet transcends traditional boundaries, providing companies that accept credit cards online a tremendous opportunity to bolster international sales. An Internet World Stats survey estimates that nearly one-third of the world's population use the internet, so business owners must thoroughly understand their clientele.
Any payment platform must address the desires of as many customers as possible, so companies should consider customer service when choosing a merchant account manager. Established companies that feel they may be lagging in customer service should conduct a payment processing review can help a company determine areas in which it needs to improves its customer service.
---Original reading: patriciaweberconsulting.com
More Related Reading: What’s Your Habit While Shopping or Shopping Online?
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet).
Cloud computing entrusts, typically centalized, services with your data, software, and computation on a published application programming interface (API) over a network. It has a lot of overlap with software as a service (SaaS).
End users access cloud based applications through a web browser or a light weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. Cloud application providers strive to give the same or better service and performance than if the software programs were installed locally on end-user computers.
At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.
Cloud computing shares characteristics with:
Autonomic computing—Computer systems capable of self-management.
Client–server model—Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).
Grid computing—"A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks."
Mainframe computer—Powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, police and secret intelligence services, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.
Utility computing—The "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity."
Peer-to-peer—Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).
Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:
Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control, as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example)
Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.
Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.
Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. This is purported to lower barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).
Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.
Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another.
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)
Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)
Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.
Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads.
Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.
Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.
Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places.
Cloud computing providers offer their services according to three fundamental models: Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS) where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model abstracts from the details of the lower models.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
In this most basic cloud service model, cloud providers offer computers – as physical or more often as virtual machines –, raw (block) storage, firewalls, load balancers, and networks. IaaS providers supply these resources on demand from their large pools installed in data centers. Local area networks including IP addresses are part of the offer. For the wide area connectivity, the Internet can be used or - in carrier clouds - dedicated virtual private networks can be configured.
To deploy their applications, cloud users then install operating system images on the machines as well as their application software. In this model, it is the cloud user who is responsible for patching and maintaining the operating systems and application software. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis, that is, cost will reflect the amount of resources allocated and consumed.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
In the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. With some PaaS offers, the underlying compute and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand such that the cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
In this model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. The cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform on which the application is running. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers simplifying maintenance and support. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. This can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand. Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This process is transparent to the cloud user who sees only a single access point. To accomodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be multitenant, that is, any machine serves more than one cloud user organization. It is common to refer to special types of cloud based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service, business process as a service, Test Environment as a Service, communication as a service.
Users access cloud computing using networked client devices, such as desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Some of these devices - cloud clients - rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to be essentially useless without it. Examples are thin clients and the browser-based Chromebook. Many cloud applications do not require specific software on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud application. With Ajax and HTML5 these Web user interfaces can achieve a similar or even better look and feel as native applications. Some cloud applications, however, support specific client software dedicated to these applications (e.g., virtual desktop clients and most email clients). Some legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology.
Applications, storage, and other resources are made available to the general public by a service provider. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. There are limited service providers like Microsoft, Google etc owns all Infrastructure at their Data Center and the access will be through Internet mode only. No direct connectivity proposed in Public Cloud Architecture.
Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.
Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models.
Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.
They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management, essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".
NOTES: More info of Cloud Computing, such as history of Cloud computing, Cloud engineering, Issues about Cloud Computing including Privacy, Compliance, Security, etc., you can visit wikipedia.org---Cloud Computing
More Related: CloudVerse: Cisco Storms into the Cloud Market
UK CTO explains firm's strategies for success at London 2012UK CTO explains firm's strategies for success at London 2012
Behind every great athlete preparing for the Olympics is a team of experts - from nutritionists to trainers to medical staff - helping to ensure they can achieve their absolute best in time for the event, to be at the very peak of their physical prowess.
The running of the Olympics itself is no different, with the games themselves the star, but powered by a vast army of individuals, companies and government organisations all working to ensure the event is a success for the UK, and the world at large.
Technology is, of course, a major part of this, and Cisco is one of several major technology vendors providing equipment and expertise to the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG).
The INQUIRER spoke with the firm's UK chief technology officer, Ian Foddering, to discuss how the firm is ensuring that its preparations are helping to ensure the hardware and software that it's providing will play a crucial role in delivering the greatest show on earth.
Of course, for an event of such size, the amount of equipment being provided is huge, with 2,200 switches, 1,800 WiFi access points and 16,500 IP telephony handsets all being deployed by Cisco, as well as the firm's Webex audio conferencing service.
As Foddering explained, this will be used by LOCOG staff to help with internal collaboration during the games and is used in conjunction with BT's HUCS (Hosted Unified Communications Services) service, allowing the technology to be run as a cloud deployment.
"The way LOCOG is using Webex is a great example of how cloud computing can benefit organizations. At the start of the preparation they had some 200-odd staff but in the run-up to the games this will rise to almost 6,000 employees working around all venues," he explained.
"This will then shrink right back down again after the Paralympic Games, so using cloud technology to scale this up and down is perfect."
However, Cisco's role extends beyond merely providing equipment, as it is also heavily involved in strenuous pre-event tests designed to ensure that the systems in place will remain online in event of any scenario, from extreme weather events to possible terrorist attacks.
While not going into specifics, Foddering said that Cisco and other technology vendors involved in the games had carried out several rounds of tests involving multiple scenarios, in order to ensure they are prepared for all eventualities.
"The testing we are doing is well advanced, as you would expect, and it will carry on right up to the start of the games and so far it has all been very successful," he said.
"The site is very much a 24/7 environment so we will not be able to make any changes during the event, or in the run-up to the Paralympic Games either, so everything has to work throughout the entire period."
Foddering also revealed that Cisco is providing 30 technical experts that will be deployed at the LOCOG technical operation centres, where they will work with staff from other firms, including worldwide IT partner for the games Atos Origin.
"This will help us ensure that in the event of a failure or an issue, there will be staff working together that can produce a swift resolution should anything occur," he added.
Such high-level measures are clearly necessary for an event of the scale and importance of the Olympics. However, as Foddering notes, the actual equipment Cisco is providing is the same as other, more standard installs the firm runs.
"Some of our customers are surprised that we are using the same equipment at the Olympic site as they have for their deployments - they expect us to be using our most cutting-edge, newest equipment, but LOCOG actually specifies that we use tried-and-tested equipment," he said.
"We have to know how it will perform and that nothing will go wrong, so we use equipment like our Catalyst 6500, 3750 and 2960, which are some of our core server products."
However, while the equipment may be the same, Foddering admits the Olympics is a special occasion for the firm.
"The excitement levels within Cisco are incredibly high at the moment, we are all counting down to 2012, and this really is a very unique opportunity for the firm. It's like nothing we've ever done before," he said.
---Original reading from theinquirer.net
More Cisco News you can visit: http://blog.router-switch.com/
The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series Access Point is an IEEE 802.11a/b/g fixed-configuration, dual-band access point. Built in to the access point are two radios, each with diversity antennas that provide omnidirectional coverage. The Cisco Aironet 1130G Series Access Point provides single-band 802.11g wireless connectivity. Both series are designed for wireless LAN coverage in offices and similar RF environments.
Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g access points provide high-capacity, high security, enterprise-class features in an unobtrusive, office-class design, delivering WLAN access with the lowest total cost of ownership. With high-performing dual IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g radios, the Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series provides a combined capacity of up to 108 Mbps to meet the needs of growing WLANs. Hardware-assisted Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) or temporal key integrity protocol (TKIP) encryption provides uncompromised support for interoperable IEEE 802.11i, Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) or WPA security. The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series uses radio and network management features for simplified deployment, along with built-in omnidirectional antennas that provide robust and predictable WLAN coverage for offices and similar RF environments. The competitively priced Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series is ready to install and easy to manage, reducing the cost of deployment and ongoing maintenance.
The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series is available in two versions: unified or autonomous. Unified access points operate with the Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP) and work in conjunction with Cisco wireless LAN controllers and the Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS). When configured with LWAPP, the Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series can automatically detect the best-available Cisco wireless LAN controller and download appropriate policies and configuration information with no manual intervention. Autonomous access points are based on Cisco IOS Software and may optionally operate with the Cisco Works Wireless LAN Solution Engine (WLSE).
Autonomous access points, along with the Cisco Works WLSE, deliver a core set of features and may be field-upgraded to take advantage of the full benefits of the Cisco Unified Wireless Network as requirements evolve.
The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series delivers optimal value for offices and similar environments. Built-in antennas provide omnidirectional coverage specifically designed for today’s open workspaces. A multipurpose mounting bracket easily secures Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series access points to ceilings and walls. With an unobtrusive design, Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series access points are aesthetically pleasing and blend into their environments. For maximum concealment, the access point may be placed above ceilings or suspended ceilings. The UL 2043 rating of the Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series allows the access point to be placed above ceilings in plenum areas regulated by municipal fire codes. Offered at a competitive price, and optimized for easy installation and operation, the Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series helps organizations attain a lower total cost of ownership.
In offices and similarly open environments, Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series access points may be installed on the ceiling to provide users with continuous coverage as they roam throughout a facility. In school buildings and similar facilities, the access points may be installed on the ceiling of each room and hallway to provide users with full coverage and high network availability. In areas where a ceiling installation may not be practical such as retail hotspots or similar small facilities, the access points can be mounted simply and securely on walls for complete coverage with minimal installation cost.
The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series has achieved National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) FIPS 140-2 level 2 validation and is in process for Information Assurance validation under the National Information Assurance Partnership (NIAP) Common Criteria program. The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series supports 802.11i, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), WPA2, and numerous Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) types. WPA and WPA2 are the Wi-Fi Alliance certifications for interoperable, standards-based WLAN security. These certifications support IEEE
802.1X for user-based authentication, Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) for WPA encryption, and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for WPA2 encryption. These certifications help to ensure interoperability between Wi-Fi-certified WLAN devices from different manufacturers.
The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series hardware-accelerated AES encryption supports enterprise class, government-grade secure encryption over the WLAN without compromising performance. IEEE 802.1X authentication helps to ensure that only authorized users are allowed on the network. Backward compatibility and support for WPA client devices running TKIP, the RC4 encryption algorithm, is also supported by the Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series.
Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series Access Points operating with LWAPP support Cisco Unified Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System (IDS/IPS), a software feature that is part of the Cisco Self-Defending Network and is the industry’s first integrated wired and wireless security solution. Cisco Unified IDS/IPS takes a comprehensive approach to security—at the wireless edge, wired edge, WAN edge, and through the data center. When an associated client sends malicious traffic through the Cisco Unified Wireless Network, a Cisco wired IDS device detects the attack and sends shun requests to Cisco wireless LAN controllers, which will then disassociate the client device.
Autonomous or unified Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series Access Points support management frame protection for the authentication of 802.11 management frames by the wireless network infrastructure. This allows the network to detect spoofed frames from access points or malicious users impersonating infrastructure access points. If an access point detects a malicious attack, an incident will be generated by the access point and reports will be gathered on the Cisco wireless LAN controller, Cisco WCS, or Cisco Works WLSE.
The Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series provides the ideal enterprise access point for offices and similar environments. With two high-performance radios, these access points provide simultaneous support for the 802.11a and 802.11g standards, offering 108 Mbps of capacity for your growing WLAN. Incorporating AES encryption in hardware, the Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series complies with the 802.11i security standard and is WPA2-certified, helping to assure that your network employs the strongest security available while maintaining interoperability with products from other manufacturers. Additional design features, including diversity antennas with omnidirectional coverage and an unobtrusive form factor, along with an attractive price, provide low total cost of ownership.
For office environments, the Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series is a cost-compelling solution for a high capacity, high-security, enterprise-class WLAN.
More Related info of Aironet 1130AG Series’ Features, Benefits and Specs you can visit PDF file of Cisco Aironet 1130AG Series IEEE 802.11A/B/G Access Point
Creating network designs for people is not an easy task, for many factors and requirements need considering. It’s the fact that most organizations do not upgrade their LAN to prepare for the future – most of them don’t touch the network as long as it is running properly and supporting the user’s applications. When starting the planning process for putting a secure voice system on the network, which takes the network requirements to another level.
There is a lot more to consider than QoS for putting voice on the LAN, although that is what the discussion is usually centered around. The LAN also has to have a number of other attributes:
- Secure - with voice on the LAN, the switches must have security features that can prevent them from getting attacked with MAC address floods, rogue DHCP servers, gratuitous ARP’s changing the default gateway, and other attacks that can be launched by malware.
- Fast - If voice goes through multiple switches, each hop can add latency. Instead of store and forward of the ethernet frames, switches should use cut-through to move things along. Server and uplink speeds should be gigabit, while for most organizations 10/100 Mbsp to the desktop is just fine.
- QoS - As discussed above. This comes into play mostly in uplinks. When remote access layer closets are connected back to the distribution layer, there is a choke point in the LAN. Any choke points require queuing to prioritize the voice.
- Reliable - Long Mean Time Between Failure, well tested code to limit bugs, good support from the manufacturer in case there is a software or hardware issue.
- Managable - The switches have to be able to be managed remotely, have SNMP information, be able to log, and be configurable. GUI interfaces are ok, but there is nothing like a solid command line interface for rapid configuration, troubleshooting, and repair.
- Power Density- Switches have to be able to support the power density of the planned devices. Most switches cannot power all ports at the highest levels.
- Power and Cooling – Since IP phones are powered from the switches, all access layer switches will require properly sized UPS’s. A basic switch consumes about 60 Watts. A 48 port switch with 15 Watt phones plugged into every port will require at least 600 Watts. Put a few of those switches in the closet an you are looking at not only a much bigger UPS, but also better cooling.
- Redundant Design – The only place that there should be a single point of failure is at the access layer in the closets. If a switch fails, only the devices connected to that switch should lose connectivity – all others should work around the issue. In most cases that means dual uplinks from each closet to a redundant distribution layer at the core.
An excellent reference to everything discussed above is the Cisco Campus Network for High Availability Design Guide. This drawing shows both redundant uplinks and the single points of failure that are acceptable:
When all the requirements for a good LAN that can support voice are evaluated, it turns out that it prepares the network for future requirements as well, like IP security cameras, wireless access points, and other devices that may hang off the LAN.
It is certainly possible to build out a LAN with non-Cisco switches, but there are so many little things that are useful with Cisco switches, and they tend to be price competitive, that it is usually best to go with them. For example, one of the most useful tools is Cisco Discovery Protocol, which lets you see what other CDP devices are connected to an individual switch. I use this all the time to work my way through a network and find out where devices are located.
Having set a baseline for what we are looking for in a LAN switch, we can overview a variety of Cisco switches that are available and largely required by small to large businesses. And most of them serve a useful purpose for different situations.
Cisco Catalyst 2960 Series – a type of useful, versatile switch. It is layer 2 only, so no routing. The 24 port 10/100 POE version is great. It includes two gigabit dual-personality uplink ports, so a stack can be linked together, and then the top and bottom of the stack can be connected by fiber to the distribution switches. This switch is good and popular.
Cisco 3560 Series– Similar to the 2960, but has a few more features. This is a layer 3 switch, and has three different classes of IOS. The IP base includes static routing, EIGRP stub, but no multicast routing. IP services includes the full routing features set. IP Advanced Services includes IPV6 on top of everything else. The SFP ports have to be populated with either copper or fiber gig SFP’s to uplink.
Cisco 3750 – This is just like the 3560, but with one big difference. The 3750 includes two Stackwise connectors on the back of the switch, allowing up to nine switches to be stacked together using a 32 Gbps backplane speed. The stack is managed as a single switch, and uplink ports on different switches can be connected together with EtherChannel so that multi-gigabit closet uplinks can be obtained. For an inexpensive distribution layer, a small stack of 3750 switches is ideal. The entire stack is limited to 32 Gbps of throughput, so this is not a good server switch for more than about 20 servers.
Cisco 4500 – This is a chassis switch that is designed to be used in the access layer. The internal design is optimized for connecting a bunch of users and uplinking out of the closet, since the internal connections the different thirds of each blade is limited to 2 Gbps in most of the linecards. The latest version of the blades and supervisor are faster, but are still oversubscribed, so this should not be used for a distribution or server switch. It is a great access layer closet switch for high density (>200 users) gigabit POE to the desktop.
Cisco 3560E Series– The E version of the 3560 switches are gigabit to the desktop and 10 gigabit uplink and aggregation. They also have modular power supplies so that every port on a 48 port switch can be powered to the highes level if required.
Cisco 3750E – gigabit speed, 10 Gbps uplinks, and Stackwise+ for switch interconnection. Stackwise+ is twice the speed of Stackwise at 64 Gbps, but has a much higher comparative speed since all traffic that is on one switch can stay on the switch, whereas with Stackwise on the 3750′s all traffic traverses the Stackwise link.
Cisco Catalyst 6500 Swithces– Excellent switch, very useful as a distribution and server switch. The switch has three backplanes, and it is worthwhile looking at the connection speed of the supervisor engines and blades before making a decision. The legacy backplane is still available using the Sup720; it is a 32 Gbps shared backplane. New blades use either CEF256, which is a 8 Gbps connection, or CEF720, which uses dual 20Gbps connections.
- The Cisco 6500 blades can have distributed routing features, or dCEF. These are typically not required except for the most challenging networks.
- The most cost-effective and reliable method for setting up a 6500 is to use a single chassis6509 with redundant power supplies, redundant supervisor engines, dual 6748 gigabit blades for server connectivity, and dual 6748 fiber uplink blades for connecting remote wiring closets.
- The Cisco 6509 has no limitations – any blade can go into any slot. The Catalyst 6513 has more slots, but only the bottom four can accept the CEF720 blades, the top seven slots connect at CEF256 or slower.
- My preference is to usually use this box as just a switch, and put routing, firewall, wireless control and other functions in dedicated boxes, but there are certain situations where the ability to put services modules like the ACE module, IPS modules, or Firewall services module in the 6500 solve a specific technical problem.
So, some examples of good designs:
- If there are between 500 and 2000 hosts on a LAN, then single or dual 6500′s at the core/distribution layer are appropriate. Stacks of 3750′s or 2960′s in the closet with gigabit uplinks back to the distribution layer are appropriate.
- For between 100 and 500 hosts on a LAN, then a stack of 3750E or 3750 switches at the core/distribution layer and a stack of 2960′s in the closets would be a good design for most organizations.
- For <100 hosts, a good design is dual 3750′s at the distribution layer with 2960′s for access layer. If price is the deciding factor then a stack of 2960′s is appropriate.
Examples of non-optimal designs that I have seen:
- Putting a single Cisco 3750 in an access layer closet. There is no reason for this, as the primary benefit of the 3750 is its Stackwise system. If there is only one, then no stacking is required.
- Adding dCEF capability to a 6500 when there is very little routing to be done in the system, and the 6500 is nowhere near hitting its performance limit with all routing being done in the supervisor engine.
- Having a mismatch between power draw and power supply on the switch. This can happen from having power supplies that are too small, or loading too many POE devices onto an underpowered 48 port switch.
One of the most useful devices to increase reliability of the switching infrastructure is a backup power supply. One of my rules of thumb is that moving parts break first, so the most likely item to fail in the switch is the power supply and/or cooling fans. Every Cisco switch and most of the smaller routers have a DC port in the back. That is for backup power.
The Cisco RPS675 can be used as backup power. It has dual power supplies, and can connect to six different devices. If those devices ever lose their power supply, then the RPS box will provide power via the DC power port, and everything will contine to run. The only tricky thing is ordering the correct cables. There is one set of cables for E versions of switches, and another set for all other devices.
Putting together a LAN upgrade design is a relatively straightforward process. The difference between a good design and a poor one really come down to the details. No one wants to get a cheap network that will not handle the needs of the organization in the next few years and have to be replaced, and converseley most organizations would not want to pay for an oversized network that is too expensive.
It is best to get a design done from a reseller that regularly sells deploys the products they are recommending. Good VAR’s will stay on top of the new products that are out, and will change their recommendations are based on the customer’s needs and budget. I would argue that a good VAR can put together a better design than a sales engineer from a manufacturer. The VAR is responsible for making it work within budget, whereas the manufacturer will not do the installation, and is compensated for selling as much equipment as possible.
More Cisco hardware guide and info you can visit: http://www.router-switch.com/Price-cisco-switches-cisco-switch-catalyst-3560_c22?page=3
Cisco is reportedly considering incubating an internal startup chartered to develop the company's software-defined networking product line.
According to The New York Times, Insiemi is the name of the startup, which would ostensibly be spun in to Cisco once its product is finished. The Times said Cisco is negotiating with three of its top engineers on whether to fund and commerce the startup's operations.
Cisco would not comment on the Times story.
Cisco has done this with two other internal startups -- Andiamo, which made the company's SAN switches; and Nuova, which developed Cisco's Nexus data center switches. In all three cases, the same three Cisco engineers are involved in the startup company formation, operation and product strategy and development: Mario Mazzola, Prem Jain and Luca Cafiero.
The three have deep roots in Cisco's Ethernet switching business, dating back to 1993. Andiamo was acquired by Cisco in 2002, with the purchase price based on SAN switch sales -- potentially up to $2.5 billion, Cisco said at the time. Nuova was acquired in 2008 for between $70 million and $678 million, also dependent on product sales.
But the startup spin-in strategy has also strained relations between Cisco and its internal engineering teams who were not selected to join the startup and then saw their own teams recruited away. The practice led to the departures of these engineers who then started up their own companies to compete with Cisco, sources said.
Sources say Insiemi has already recruited Tom Edsall, a Cisco Fellow and a lead ASIC architect of the company's Nexus and MDS switching lines (from the Nuova and Andiamo spin-ins); and Ronak Desai, the architect of Cisco's NX-OS FabricPath and Virtual Device Context software, and of the MDS SAN switch operating system. The startup may also have recruited Michael Smith, a distinguished engineer who worked on Cisco's Nexus 1000v virtual switch, sources say.
Insiemi has also been granted full source code licenses to Cisco's NX-OS data center network operating system, the sources say. They also say Insiemi headquarters have been established for now in Cafiero's Palo Alto home.
Insiemi would develop Cisco's software-defined networking product line, according to The New York Times. Software-defined networking (SDN) allows an external controller to act as the brains of the switching and/or routing infrastructure, enabling software programmability and configurability without manual intervention on each and every network element.
The Nexus 1000v virtual switch would likely be the first "touch point" for the Cisco SDN controller, sources say.
SDNs are said to be a way to abstract the physical network from the logic with which to operate it, and to enable easier modification or feature extension. OpenFlow is supported by many in the industry as an API and protocol to enable SDNs.
Cisco has been tight-lipped on its OpenFlow/SDN strategy. SDNs are said to be a threat to Cisco's hardware dominance and profits in that it opens up proprietary or customized hardware to manipulation by an external element.
Cisco has said it plans to add OpenFlow to its Nexus switches, but beyond that, the company is not elaborating on its strategy to either embrace or combat SDNs.
In the previous internal startup ventures, Andiamo and Nuova both developed switches featuring custom Cisco ASICs with software very tightly coupled with this ASICs. Indeed, this continues to be Cisco's strategy, even with SDNs, Cisco CEO John Chambers recently noted in a roundtable with trade reporters.
So it's expected that Insiemi would develop an SDN controller, and perhaps other switching products, that tightly couple Cisco ASICs to the software control of associated switches. Whether OpenFlow is involved in the development -- or a Cisco proprietary SDN API and protocol -- is unclear at this point.
---Original reading from pcworld.com
More Cisco News you can visit: http://blog.router-switch.com/category/news/
Overview on Cisco Catalyst 3750 Switches: Features, Technology, Intelligent Switching, Network Management
The Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series switches are a premier line of enterprise-class, stackable, multilayer switches that provide high availability, security, and quality of service (QoS) to enhance the operation of the network. Its innovative unified stack management raises the bar in stack management, redundancy, and failover.
With a range of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet configurations, the Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series can serve as both a powerful access layer switch for medium enterprise wiring closets and as a backbone switch for mid-sized networks. Customers can deploy network wide intelligent services, such as advanced QoS, rate-limiting, Cisco security access control lists (ACLs), multicast management, and high-performance IP routing—while maintaining the simplicity of traditional LAN switching. Embedded in the Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series is the Cisco Cluster Management Suite (CMS) Software, which allows users to simultaneously configure and troubleshoot multiple Cisco Catalyst desktop switches using a standard Web browser.
Cisco CMS Software provides new configuration wizards that greatly simplify the implementation of converged applications and network wide services.
The Cisco Catalyst switches are available with the SMI or the EMI. The Enhanced Multilayer Software Image enables a richer set of enterprise-class features, including hardware-based IP unicast and multicast routing, inter-VLAN routing, router access control lists (RACLs), and the Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP). Flexibility to upgrade to EMI after the initial deployment is provided through an EMI upgrade kit. Additional details about the differences between the SMI and EMI are provided later in this document.
More Q&A helps you know Cisco 3750 series well
Q. What software images do the Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches support?
A. the Cisco Catalyst switches are available with the SMI or the EMI.
The Enhanced Multilayer Software Image enables a richer set of enterprise-class features, including hardware-based IP unicast and multicast routing, inter-VLAN routing, router access control lists (RACLs), and the Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP). Flexibility to upgrade to EMI after the initial deployment is provided through an EMI upgrade kit. Additional details about the differences between the SMI and EMI are provided later in this document.
Q. Can I enable static IP routing using the SMI?
A.Yes, RIP and static routing are supported on the SMI. Dynamic IP routing protocols (OSPF, BGPv4, EIGRP, IGRP) are available only on the EMI.
Q. Is the EMI required to allow Layer 3 and Layer 4 lookups for QoS and security?
A.No. Both the SMI and the EMI allow for Layer 3 and Layer 4 lookups for QoS and security.
Q. Do the Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches support Inter-Switch Link (ISL) virtual LAN (VLAN) trunking?
A.Yes, the Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches support both 802.1Q trunking and ISL trunking. VLAN trunks can be created from any port using either standards-based 802.1Q tagging or the Cisco ISL VLAN architecture.
Q. Can the Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series switches stack with the Cisco Catalyst 3550 Series switches?
A.No, the Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches cannot stack with the Cisco Catalyst 3550 switches. The Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches’ new innovative Cisco StackWise technology with 32-Gbps high-speed stacking bus is not compatible with Cisco Catalyst 3550 switches’ Giga Stack stacking.
Overview on Technology
The Cisco StackWise technology provides an innovative method for collectively using and extending the resources of a stack of units. Up to nine switches can be joined together to create a single switching unit with a virtual 32-Gbps stack interconnect. Furthermore, the entire stack can be managed as one unit with a single IP address. To the rest of the network, the stack operates as a single switch. With a unified management interface, the customer can with one command load a single image to all compatible switches on the stack. Cisco StackWise technology is optimized for Gigabit Ethernet deployment bringing customers new levels of performance through the high speed interconnect, resiliency through advanced failover mechanisms and ease of use through automated configuration and a single management interface.
Because of the Cisco StackWise technology, the Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series is highly scalable. There can be up to 252 Gigabit Ethernet ports in a stack. Switches within the stack can be added and removed without affecting user network access. New devices get the global configuration from the stack master, and replacement devices get the exact configuration of the old device. There is one configuration file with all stack member configurations. Its innovative design sets the bar of availability in stackable switches. It supports link and switch level redundancy.
The Cisco Catalyst 3750 supports cross-stack Ether Channel as well as Cross-Stack Uplink Fast (with sub second failover), and cross-stack equal cost routes across different switches in the stack. These features eliminate the need of relying on HSRP for router failures. In the case of Master switch failure, another Master switch takes over with minimal disruption within 2 to 3 seconds.
For more information about Cisco StackWise technology, go to:
SFPs are transceivers that provide Gigabit Ethernet connectivity from the Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches to distribution layer switches. They are functionally equivalent to Gigabit Interface Converters (GBICs), but are much smaller. Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches support 1000BASE-LX/LH and 1000BASE-SX SFPs. Like other Cisco switches and routers, the Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches do not interoperate with other vendors’ SFPs. The switch will shut down the port if an SFP is inserted that is not a Cisco SFP. Users can populate all the SFP ports of any Cisco Catalyst 3750 Switch with the same SFP or with a combination of different SFPs. Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches support the following Cisco SFPs: 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX/LH. The Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches can be supported by the Cisco RPS 675 and the Cisco RPS 300. Both the Cisco RPS 675 and RPS 300 provide superior internal power source redundancy for up to six Cisco networking devices. This results in improved fault tolerance and network uptime. For more information go to:
The Cisco RPS 675 is the next-generation of the RPS 300. It provides more power (675W) than RPS 300 (300W). RPS 675 can provide up to 375W of –48V power, and 300W of 12V power. Unlike the Cisco RPS 300, the RPS 675 comes up in active mode. The customer does not need to push a button to activate the RPS 675 after a power failure.
The Cisco Catalyst 3750-24TS-E, 3750-48TS-E, 3750G-24T-E, 3750G-24TS-E are loaded with the Enhanced Multilayer Software Image, so all feature license fees are part of the standard list price. However, the Cisco Catalyst 3750-24TS-S, 3750-48TS-S, 3750G-24T-S, 3750G-24TS-S switches are loaded with the Standard Multilayer Software Image; these switches can be upgraded to the Enhanced Multilayer Software Image with the purchase of the Enhanced Multilayer Software Image upgrade kit (part number CD-3750-EMI=). The Standard Multilayer Software Image includes RIP and static routing. For dynamic IP routing features (BGPv4, OSFP, EIGRP, IGRP), the EMI is required.
The following features and functionality are supported with the Enhanced Multilayer Software Image:
•Dynamic IP routing protocols for load balancing and constructing scalable LANs:
–Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
–Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)
–Border Gateway Protocol (BGPv4)
•Equal-cost routing for load balancing and redundancy
•Cisco standard and extended IP security Router RACLs for defining security policies on routed interfaces for control plane and data plane traffic
•Fallback bridging for forwarding of non-IP traffic between two or more VLANs
•Cisco Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) to create redundant failsafe routing topologies
•Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM) for IP multicast routing within a network that enables the network to receive the multicast feed requested and for switches not participating in the multicast to be pruned—support for PIM sparse mode (PIM-SM), PIM dense mode (PIM-DM), and PIM sparse-dense mode
•Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) tunneling for interconnecting two multicast-enabled networks across no multicast networks
•Policy-based Routing (PBR) allows superior control by enabling flow redirection regardless of the routing protocol configured
Q and A: Intelligent Switching & Security
Q. Why do I need intelligence at the edge of my network?
A.Networks are evolving to address four new developments at the network edge:
• Increase in desktop computing power
• Introduction of bandwidth-intensive applications
• Expansion of highly sensitive data on the network
• Presence of multiple device types, such as IP phones and wireless LAN access points
These new demands are contending for resources with many existing mission-critical applications. As a result, IT professionals must view the edge of the network as critical to effectively manage the delivery of information and applications. As companies increasingly rely on networks as the strategic business infrastructure, it is more important than ever to ensure their high availability, security, scalability, and control. By adding Cisco intelligent functions to the wiring closet, customers can now deploy network wide intelligent services that address these requirements in a consistent way from the desktop to the core and through the WAN.
With Cisco Catalyst Intelligent Ethernet switches, Cisco helps companies to realize the full benefits of adding intelligent services to their networks. Deploying capabilities that make the network infrastructure highly available to accommodate time-critical needs, scalable to accommodate growth, secure enough to protect confidential information, and capable of differentiating and controlling traffic flows are key to further optimizing network operations.
Q. Can you provide more details on how Cisco intelligent switching will help my network?
A. New applications are requiring higher bandwidth and the need to differentiate and control the traffic flow.
Applications such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) (Oracle, SAP, etc.), voice (IP telephony traffic) and CAD/CAM require prioritization over less time-sensitive applications such as FTP or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). It would be highly undesirable to have a large file download destined to one port on a wiring closet switch and have quality implications such as increased latency in voice traffic, destined to another port on this switch. This condition is avoided by ensuring that voice traffic is properly classified and prioritized throughout the network. Cisco Intelligent Ethernet switches implement superior QoS to ensure that network traffic is classified prioritized, and congestion is avoided.
Q. How will the security needs of a network be handled?
A.With the rise in internal threats to a network, Cisco Ethernet switches enhance data security through a wide range of features including Secure Shell (SSH) and Simple Network Management Protocol version 3 (SNMPv3) protocols, ACLs, 802.1x, port security, private VLAN edge, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) interface tracker, MAC address notification, and RADIUS/TACACS+. Depending on your security needs, the Cisco Catalyst 3550 Series complements devices such as firewalls, VPNs, and Intrusion Detection Systems.
Q. For security purposes, how can I protect unauthorized users from accessing my network?
A. the Cisco Catalyst 3750 supports 802.1x that works in conjunction with a RADIUS server to authenticate users as they access a network. The 802.1x standard is considered port-level security and is commonly used for wireless LANs. Additionally, portions of the network can be restricted by using ACLs. Access can be denied based on Media Access Control (MAC) addresses, IP addresses, or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports. ACL lookups are done in hardware—forwarding and routing performance is not compromised when implementing ACL-based security. An additional protection method is to use port security, which ensures the appropriate user is on the network by limiting access to the port based on MAC addresses.
Q. For security purposes, how can I monitor or track activities in my network?
A.Intrusion detection systems are tailored to monitor and track activities in a network. The Cisco Catalyst 3750 can complement this through features such as MAC address notification, which will send an alert to a management station so that network administrators know when and where users came on to the network and can take appropriate actions. The DHCP Interface Tracker (Option 82) feature will track where a user is physically connected on a network by providing both switch and port ID to a DHCP server.
Q. For security purposes, how do I protect administration passwords and traffic going to the switch during configuration or troubleshooting?
A. To protect administration traffic during the configuration or troubleshooting of a switch (such as passwords or device configuration settings), the best approach is to encrypt the data. Both SSH and SNMPv3 provide encryption of data during Telnet sessions and SNMP sessions.
The Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches can be managed using the Web-based Cisco Cluster Management Suite (CMS) Software, which uses Cisco Switch Clustering technology. Cisco CMS is Web-based software that is embedded in Cisco Catalyst 3750, 3550, 2950, 3500 XL, 2900 XL, 2900 LRE XL, and 1900 switches. Through Cisco Switch Clustering technology, users access Cisco CMS with any standard Web browser to manage up to 16 of these switches at once, regardless of their geographic proximity with the option of using a single IP address if desired. With the addition of the Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches, Cisco CMS can now extend beyond routed boundaries for even more flexibility in managing a Cisco cluster.
Cisco CMS provides an integrated management interface for delivering intelligent services, enabling users to manage their entire LAN with one robust tool. By bringing the simplicity of traditional LAN switching to intelligent services such as multilayer switching, QoS, multicast, and security ACLs, Cisco CMS allows administrators to take advantage of benefits formerly reserved for only the most complex networks. The new Guide Mode in Cisco CMS leads the user step by step through the configuration of high-end features and provides enhanced online help for context-sensitive assistance. In addition, a Solution Wizard provides automated configuration of the switch for video streaming or video conferencing. Future software will provide Solution Wizards for voice over IP (VoIP), mission-critical applications, and security.
Cisco CMS supports standards-based connectivity options such as Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Fast EtherChannel, Gigabit Ethernet, and Gigabit EtherChannel connectivity. Because Cisco Switch Clustering technology is not limited by proprietary stacking modules, stacking cables or interconnection media, Cisco CMS expands the traditional cluster domain beyond a single wiring closet and lets users mix and match interconnections to meet specific management, performance, and cost requirements.
Cisco Catalyst 3750 switches can be configured either as command or member switches in a Cisco switch cluster. Cisco CMS also allows the network administrator to designate a standby or redundant command switch, which takes the commander duties should the primary command switch fail. Other important features include the ability to configure multiple ports and switches simultaneously, as well as perform software updates across the entire cluster at once. Bandwidth graphs and link reports provide useful diagnostic information and the topology map gives network administrators a quick view of the network status.
More Details: PDF file of Cisco Catalyst 3750 Switches, such as more info of positioning, software updates, etc.
This document describes the password recovery procedure for the Cisco Catalyst Layer 2 fixed configuration switches 2900XL/3500XL, 2940, 2950/2955, 2960, and 2970 Series, as well as the Cisco Catalyst Layer 3 fixed configuration switches 3550, 3560, and 3750 Series.
1. Attach a terminal or PC with terminal emulation (for example, Hyper Terminal) to the console port of the switch.
Use the following terminal settings:
- Bits per second (baud): 9600
- Data bits: 8
- Parity: None
- Stop bits: 1
- Flow Control: Xon/Xoff
Note: For additional information on cabling and connecting a terminal to the console port, refer to Connecting a Terminal to the Console Port on Catalyst
2. Unplug the power
3. Power the switch and bring it to the switch: prompt:
For 2900XL, 3500XL, 2940, 2950, 2960, 2970, 3550, 3560, and 3750 series switches, do this:
Hold down the mode button located on the left side of the front panel, while you reconnect the power cable to the switch.
Note: LED position may vary slightly depending on the model.
For 2955 series switches only:
The Catalyst 2955 series switches do not use an external mode button for password recovery. Instead the switch boot loader uses the break-key detection to stop the automatic boot sequence for the password recovery purposes. The break sequence is determined by the terminal application and operating system used. Hyperterm running on Windows 2000 uses Ctrl + Break. On a workstation running UNIX, Ctrl-C is the break key. For more information, refer to Standard Break Key Sequence Combinations During Password Recovery.
The example below uses Hyperterm to break into switch: mode on a 2955.
C2955 Boot Loader (C2955-HBOOT-M) Version 12.1(0.0.514), CISCO DEVELOPMENT TEST
Compiled Fri 13-Dec-02 17:38 by madison
Base ethernet MAC Address: 00:0b:be:b6:ee:00
Xmodem file system is available.
flashfs: 19 files, 2 directories
flashfs: 0 orphaned files, 0 orphaned directories
flashfs: Total bytes: 7741440
flashfs: Bytes used: 4510720
flashfs: Bytes available: 3230720
flashfs: flashfs fsck took 7 seconds.
...done initializing flash.
Boot Sector Filesystem (bs:) installed, fsid: 3
Parameter Block Filesystem (pb:) installed, fsid: 4
*** The system will autoboot in 15 seconds ***
Send break character to prevent autobooting.
!--- Wait until you see this message before
!--- you issue the break sequence.
!--- Ctrl+Break is entered using Hyperterm.
The system has been interrupted prior to initializing the flash file system to finish
loading the operating system software:
4. Issue the flash_init command.
flashfs: 143 files, 4 directories
flashfs: 0 orphaned files, 0 orphaned directories
flashfs: Total bytes: 3612672
flashfs: Bytes used: 2729472
flashfs: Bytes available: 883200
flashfs: flashfs fsck took 86 seconds
....done Initializing Flash.
Boot Sector Filesystem (bs:) installed, fsid: 3
Parameter Block Filesystem (pb:) installed, fsid: 4
!--- This output is from a 2900XL switch. Output from
!--- other switches will vary slightly.
5. Issue the load_helper command.
6. Issue the dir flash: command.
Note: Make sure to type a colon ":" after the dir flash.
The switch file system is displayed:
switch: dir flash:
Directory of flash:/
2 -rwx 1803357 <date> c3500xl-c3h2s-mz.120-5.WC7.bin
!--- This is the current version of software.
4 -rwx 1131 <date> config.text
!--- This is the configuration file.
5 -rwx 109 <date> info
6 -rwx 389 <date> env_vars
7 drwx 640 <date> html
18 -rwx 109 <date> info.ver
403968 bytes available (3208704 bytes used)
!--- This output is from a 3500XL switch. Output from
!--- other switches will vary slightly.
7. Type rename flash:config.text flash:config.old to rename the configuration file.
switch: rename flash:config.text flash:config.old
!--- The config.text file contains the password
8. Issue the boot command to boot the system.
File "flash:c3500xl-c3h2s-mz.120-5.WC7.bin" uncompressed and installed, entry po
!--- Output suppressed.
!--- This output is from a 3500XL switch. Output from other switches
!--- will vary slightly.
9. Enter "n" at the prompt to abort the initial configuration dialog.
--- System Configuration Dialog ---
At any point you may enter a question mark '?' for help.
Use ctrl-c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.
Default settings are in square brackets ''.
Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]: n
!--- Type "n" for no.
Press RETURN to get started.
!--- Press Return or Enter.
!--- The Switch> prompt is displayed.
At the switch prompt, type en to enter enable mode.
11. Type rename flash:config.old flash:config.text to rename the configuration file with its original name.
Switch#rename flash:config.old flash:config.text
Destination filename [config.text]
!--- Press Return or Enter.
Copy the configuration file into memory.
Switch#copy flash:config.text system:running-config
Destination filename [running-config]?
!--- Press Return or Enter.
1131 bytes copied in 0.760 secs
The configuration file is now reloaded.
13. Overwrite the current passwords that you do not know. Choose a strong password with at least one capital letter, one number, and one special character.
Note: Overwrite the passwords which are necessary. You need not overwrite all of the mentioned passwords.
Sw1# conf t
!--- To overwrite existing secret password
Sw1(config)#enable secret <new_secret_password>
!--- To overwrite existing enable password
Sw1(config)#enable password <new_enable_password>
!--- To overwrite existing vty password
Sw1(config)#line vty 0 15
!--- To overwrite existing console password
Sw1(config-line)#line con 0
14. Write the running configuration to the configuration file with the write memory command.
---Original resources from
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, and is used by routers connected to a network to automatically assign IP addresses to all of the computers on that network. The assigned addresses are kept in a central database. Using DHCP prevents two machines from receiving the same IP address, and prevents network administrators from having to assign addresses manually. Most routers have an option to turn DHCP on or off.
Instructions to Adjust the DHCP Setting on Your Router/Cisco router
1. Open a Web browser on a computer connected to the network.
2. Navigate to your router's homepage. This differs for different routers, so refer to your owner's manual for the address. Common router addresses are 192.168.227.1, 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.0.1. The address most likely begins with 192.168.
3. Log in to your router as an administrator to make changes. Again, the login settings will vary according to your router manufacturer, so refer to your owner's manual. Common logins include admin/admin, admin/(blank), and (blank)/(blank).
4. Navigate to the "LAN Settings" of your router.
5. Check either the "Enable DHCP" or "Disable DHCP" radio button. If you enable the DHCP settings, you can choose a starting and an ending IP address for all of the computers on the network. This is not necessary, however, as the router's default settings are normally all you need.
6. Click "Apply/Save changes" and log out of the router. You may have to restart the router to apply the changes.
Tips & Warnings
If you are not sure whether or not to enable DHCP, it is best to use the router's default settings. Improper DHCP settings can make your network unstable or inoperative.
More Info: DHCP & DHCP Operation
The Cisco Catalyst 2960 switch is a small switch that runs the same Cisco IOS that the larger switches do, and has most of the same features. This article describes several ways you can pull information from the switch, such as the chassis temperature. These methods should work on most Cisco switches. Computer with terminal emulation software prepared before you start.
Command Line Interface (CLI)
1. Establish a terminal console connection by entering the IP address of the switch into the "Host Name (or IP Address)" section of the terminal emulation software. Select "SSH" or "Telnet" as the "Connection Type" and click "Open."
2. Verify you are in the "Privilege Exec" mode, which uses a "#" at the end of the prompt. Enter the command "enable" to move out of the "Exec" mode and into the "Privilege Exec" mode. (The "Exec" mode uses a ">" at the end of the prompt.)
3. Enter the command "show env all" to see all the environment information. The "Temperature is" section will be at "OK" and the "Temperature State" will be "Green" if the "Temperature Value" is below the "Yellow Threshold" value.
4. Modify the "Yellow Threshold" with the command "system env temperature threshold" followed by a number. This command must be issued from the "config" mode, which has "(config)" at the end of the prompt. To move from the "Privilege Exec" mode to the "config" mode, issue the command "configure terminal."
5. Check if the web service is running on your switch by issuing the command "show ip http server status" from the "Privileged Exec" mode. See Section 1 for details on how to get there.
6. Verify that "HTTP server status" and/or "HTTP secure server status" is set to "Enabled." Issue the command "ip http server" from the "configuration" mode to enable the web services. To disable the HTTP service, issue the command "no ip http server."
7. Open a browser, type the IP address of your switch into the address bar and hit enter.
8. Check the far right section titled "Temp" for the temperature of the switch.
Tips & Warnings
You can also use SNMP traps to monitor the switch temperature, but the process is not very intuitive and requires knowledge of SNMP MIBs, traps and monitoring software.
Enabling the HTTP service on your switch introduces a security risk.
Reference from Cisco.com