Posts with #cisco technology - it news tag
Cisco switches are constantly learning, constantly adapting, constantly protecting in your data center, core, or edge.
This is the new era in networking. The Network. Intuitive.
Now here comes the Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series.
Cisco’s new Catalyst 9000 switches, switching for a changing world, constantly adapt to help you solve new challenges.
- Their integrated security helps you address ever-changing threats.
- They simplify management of your evolving mobility, Internet-of-Things (IoT), and cloud requirements.
There are three series in Catalyst 9000 family:
Catalyst 9300 Series: The Catalyst 9300 Series is our top fixed-access enterprise network switch series, stacking to 480 Gbps.
Catalyst 9400 Series: Cisco’s leading modular-access switches for enterprise, the Catalyst 9400 Series supports up to 9 Tbps.
Catalyst 9500 Series: The Catalyst 9500 Series is the industry’s first fixed-core 40-Gbps switch for the enterprise.
More fast questions and answers help you learn more about the new Catalyst 9000 Series.
Cisco Catalyst 9000 network features and services (common to all Cisco Catalyst 9000 Switches)
Q: What feature sets do the Cisco Catalyst 9000 Switches support?
A: The Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series Switches support the packaging of features into Essentials and Advantage packages. The details of the features in each package are listed in the data sheets–link provided below in the Pricing and Ordering section.
Q: What programmability capabilities are available on the Cisco Catalyst 9000?
A: The Cisco Catalyst 9000 opens a completely new paradigm in network configuration, operation, and monitoring through network automation. The Cisco automation solution is open, standards-based, and extensible across the entire network lifecycle of a network device.
• Device provisioning: Through Plug-and-Play (PnP), Zero-Touch Provisioning (ZTP), and Preboot Execution (PXE)
• Configuration: Model-driven operation through open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) over NETCONF, Python Scripting
• Customization and monitoring: Streaming telemetry
• Upgrade and manageability: In-Service Software Upgrade (ISSU), patchability, and config/replace
Q: What management capabilities are available for the Cisco Catalyst 9000?
A: You can manage it using the Cisco IOS Software Command-Line Interface (CLI), using Cisco Prime® Infrastructure 3.1.7 DP13, Cisco Application Policy Infrastructure Controller Enterprise Module (APIC-EM), onboard Cisco IOS XE Software Web User Interface (WebUI), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), or Netconf/YANG.
Q: Is there an onboard web GUI on the Cisco Catalyst 9000?
A: Yes. An onboard web GUI is available.
Q: What is the purpose of the blue beacon LED on the Cisco Catalyst 9000?
A: The blue beacon LED is common across the Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series Switches to simplify the operations. It makes chassis identification easier when several such switches are mounted on racks. A remote administrator can enable the LED to blink to help the local operator quickly locate the chassis. The local operator presses the mode button to acknowledge.
Q: What is the maximum number of VRF instances that I can configure on a Cisco Catalyst 9000?
A: The maximum number of VRFs that you can configure on a Cisco Catalyst 9000 is 256.
Q: What is Cisco’s direction for wireless?
A: Cisco believes that the best solution for a wired or wireless network is achieved when integrated into SD-Access, Cisco’s lead architecture for the next-generation enterprise network. This solution delivers consistency with wired infrastructure around policy, segmentation, orchestration and automation, and assurance. This new architecture delivers the best experience for mobility, guest, IoT, multicast services, and overall network performance with its distributed data plane and centralized control-plane architecture.
Q: What wireless support is provided with the Cisco Catalyst 9000 platforms?
A: Cisco Catalyst 9000 products are instrumental in supporting the following wireless capabilities in the SD-Access architecture:
• Connect access points and integrate them into the SD-Access fabric. The switch integrates with the fabric control plane (LISP), thereby providing reachability for the access points and clients in the fabric.
• Deliver macro (VRF) and micro (Scalable Group Tag (SGT) [SGT] group-based) segmentation to the access points to deliver end-to-end policies.
• Can terminate guest VXLAN traffic, so there is no need for a dedicated guest anchor controller.
The support for wireless capability at launch will be together with the AireOS 8.5 Controller running on an Cisco 8540 Wireless Controller, Cisco 5520 Wireless Controller, or Cisco 3504 Wireless Controller appliance with the Cisco Catalyst platforms functioning as Fabric Edge and Fabric Border nodes.
Q: What are the SD-Access wireless capabilities?
A: The new Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series switches provide a complete solution for Campus with Cisco AireOS Conrollers and Wave 2 access points.
Q: What are the advantages of integrating wireless in the SD-Access fabric architecture?
A: • Highest performance and scale: Distributed data-plane forwarding in hardware distributed in the network paired with the large control-plane scale offered by the dedicated controller appliances.
• Best guest: You don’t need a dedicated guest anchor controller in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ): Traffic is sent directly to the fabric border to exit the fabric. Also, there is no sub-optimal traffic forwarding such as from an access point to a foreign controller and on to a guest anchor controller.
• Best mobility: IP addressing is simpler; there is one subnet for the entire wireless SSID across the network, and no hairpin of traffic when roams occur.
• Simple operation: Operation is simple because wired and wireless are treated the same and operated together; they have common policies and controller-based automation.
• Wired innovations applied to wireless: First-hop security innovations available for wired can also be applied to wireless; for example, Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI), IP Source Guard (IPSG), and DHCP Snooping.
• Segmentation across wired and wireless:
-The virtual network now passes all the way to wired as well as wireless devices.
-This segmentation is important for separation of certain devices from others, such as IoT and building automation devices connected over wireless.
-It is also important for security reasons to reduce attack the surface; if someone gets into a segment, the person can move only within that segment.
-Because segmentation is handled by the fabric, the number of SSIDs can be limited.
• Best multicast:
-The solution offers the best performance of distributed replication in hardware across the network.
These switches truly deliver the best of wired and wireless together.
For all kinds of customers, what can they expect from Cisco in 2017? In the following article, Zeus Kerravala (the founder and principal analyst with ZK Research, and provides a mix of tactical advice to help his clients in the current business climate.) listed the main points that users and clients expect from Cisco in 2017.
- Cisco will take a chunk of the security market. The security market is easily the most fragmented of all of the IT submarkets. It’s currently a $75 billion market, with no single vendor having anywhere close to double-digit share. Cisco, in particular, has fumbled around in security for years with different initiatives and architectures that have been ineffective.
Times are different today. As I pointed out in an earlier post, Cisco has never been positioned better in the security industry, and the company is finally using its greatest asset—its dominance in the network—to create tangible differentiation. Look for 2017 to be the year it breaks away from the competition and takes a chunk of the security share.
- Cisco breaks away in collaboration. Collaboration at Cisco has had its ups and downs over the past few years, but the company now pointed in the right direction. Spark was launched as a Slack-like team collaboration tool, but in actuality, it’s much more than that. It’s a fully integrated cloud, hardware and software experience that can deliver seamless, easy-to-use experiences on a mobile phone, desktop or meeting room. Expect Cisco to continue to innovate around Spark and create its next wave of growth in collaboration.
- The data center gets a shot in the arm with an acquisition. The Unified Computing System (UCS) carried the data center business unit at Cisco for years. Recently, though, the growth of the product has slowed. In fact, this past quarter saw the data center revenue fall 3 percent.
UCS is a great product, but the compute industry is shifting to hyperconverged infrastructure (HCI). Cisco’s current offering, HyperFlex, is an OEM from SpringPath, and channel feedback has been that they would prefer Cisco to own the product rather than OEM it. The OEM allows Cisco to dip its toe in the water, and in 2017 Cisco will jump in with both feet by acquiring SpringPath, which will stimulate data center growth.
- Expect Cisco to focus on analytics. When one thinks of analytics, the name Cisco is rarely top of mind. However, analytics is becoming a core component of Cisco’s strategy. Not only is it at the core of the recently announced Tetration product, but it is also fundamental to the company’s differentiation in security, Internet of Things, network operations and collaboration. Expect to see Cisco do more analytics on more network data to differentiate its offering from the many smaller competitors that can’t match its footprint.
- Cisco will push its engineer base to learn new skills. Markets transition. That’s a fact. And when then do, the engineers who work with the technology need to change their skills. Most vendors don’t see the transition, won’t admit its happening or don’t want to upset their engineer base by forcing them to change. And that always ends up being a disaster.
Think of engineers who worked with mainframes, Token Ring, TDM voice, SNA and other trends. Most are gone, as are the vendors that sold the stuff.
One of Cisco’s competitive advantages is its huge base of engineers, many of whom are steeped in the way networking was done. Based on my discussions with Cisco executives, including Jeanne Dunn, who runs Cisco’s learning group, I believe Cisco wants to disrupt its engineer base and have them learn new skills—such as automation, data sciences, programming and business skills. Some won’t like the changes to the certification requirements, but the fact is Cisco engineers need to start developing skills for the digital era.
- Executive churn will slow down. Since Robbins took the helm, there has been a steady churn at the executive level, including Kelly Ahuja, Rob Soderberry and the famed “MPLS” group—just to name a few.
I believe Robbins’ team is set now. And while there might be the odd departure here and there, this is the team he’s going to run with.
One question I’ve been asked is if the company would replace the recently departed CTO Zorawar Biri Singh. I believe engineering is in the best hands they can be under the co-leadership of Rowan Trollope (IoT and applications) and David Goeckeler (networking and security), and the structure will stay as is. Get used to the faces at the top; they should be sticking around for a while.
One thing that will remain the same at Cisco is the company’s commitment to changing the world. Cisco’s former CEO, John Chambers, had a great desire to have Cisco make the world a better place. As I pointed out earlier this year, Robbins has picked up the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ball and is running with it faster than ever.
The world is becoming increasingly digitized, and many of the digital enablers—such as IoT, cloud and mobility—are network centric. The coming year presents Cisco a great opportunity to flex its enormous networking muscles and move into the next wave of growth.
The original article from http://www.networkworld.com/article/3148784/lan-wan/what-to-expect-from-cisco-in-2017.html
More Cisco News and Reviews
Extend the role of the router to an application delivery platform with Cisco Integrated Services Router Generation 2 and Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers with Application Experience (AX).
This integrated solution includes Cisco Application Visibility and Control and Cisco Wide Area Application Services.
AX provides application services that:
- Deliver business applications faster
- Reduce bandwidth costs and latency by more than 50 percent
- Simplify IT management
In addition, Cisco AX:
- Delivers exceptional user experiences by meeting application-specific requirements
- Helps securely connect users to applications deployed anywhere at scale
- Provides application-level visibility and control of all passing traffic without probes
- Validates application response time and network readiness
Cisco AX offers a powerful suite of application services at up to 30 percent lower cost than standalone WAN optimization appliances. It also provides more capabilities, such as:
- Networkwide visibility to over 1000 applications
- Granular control on application prioritization and path control
- Enterprise-class optimization that increases application performance up to 70 percent
- Industry-leading security services, including VPN and threat defense
With the option to add Cisco UCS E-Series server blades and Cisco Cloud Connectors to Cisco ISR-AX, you can build a complete virtualized application platform in one branch router.
And Cisco ISR-AX includes:
- Cisco Application Visibility and Control (AVC), with NBAR2, QoS, and PfR
- WAN optimization - Cisco Wide Area Application Services (WAAS)
- Security, including firewall, IP Security (IPsec) and SSL VPN
- Cisco Services-Ready Engine (SRE) Modules or Max RAM (optional: UCS E-Series)
The Cisco ASR1000-AX is available on the ASR 1000 Series and includes:
- Cisco Application Visibility and Control (AVC), with NBAR2, QoS, and PfR
- WAN optimization - Cisco Virtual Wide Area Application Services (vWAAS) and Cisco AppNav
- Security, including firewall, IP Security (IPsec) and SSL VPN
- 5 Gbps Performance
Cisco announced the end-of-sale Cisco Small Business 300 Series Managed Switches (Select Models). The last day to order the affected product(s) is May 31, 2017. Customers will continue to receive phone support from the Cisco Small Business Support Center (SBSC) as shown in Table1 of the EoL bulletin.
- Table1 describes the end-of-life milestones, definitions, and dates for the affected product(s).
- Table2 lists the product part numbers affected by this announcement. For customers with active product warranties, support will be available as stated in the product warranty terms and conditions.
Table1. End-of-Life Milestones and Dates for the Cisco Small Business 300 Series Managed Switches (Select Models)
End-of-Life Announcement Date
The date the document that announces the end-of-sale and end-of-life of a product is distributed to the general public.
March 1, 2017
The last date to order the product through Cisco point-of-sale mechanisms. The product is no longer for sale after this date.
May 31, 2017
End of Phone Support:
The last date to receive phone support as part of the product warranty. After this date, all phone support services for the product are available with additional charges or support fees. In some cases, support may not be available.
May 31, 2018
Last Ship Date:
The last-possible ship date that can be requested of Cisco and/or its contract manufacturers. Actual ship date is dependent on lead time.
August 29, 2017
End of SW Maintenance Releases Date:
The last date that Cisco Engineering may release any final software maintenance releases or bug fixes. After this date, Cisco Engineering will no longer develop, repair, maintain, or test the product software.
May 31, 2018
Last Date of Support:
The last date to receive applicable service and support for the product as entitled by active service contracts or by warranty terms and conditions. After this date, all support services for the product are unavailable, and the product becomes obsolete**. Warranty duration is based on product ship dates; refer to warranty terms and conditions for details.
May 31, 2022
HW=Hardware OS SW=Operating System Software App. SW=Application Software
Table2. Product Part Numbers Affected by This Announcement
End-of-Sale Product Part Number
Replacement Product Part Number
Replacement Product Description
SF300-24MP 24-port 10/100 Max PoE Managed Switch
SG300-28MP 28-port Gigabit Max-PoE Managed Switch
SF300-24MP 24-port 10/100 Max PoE Managed Switch
SG300-28MP 28-port Gigabit Max-PoE Managed Switch
SF302-08MPP 8-port 10/100 Max PoE+ Managed Switch
SG300-10MPP 10-port Gigabit Max PoE+ Managed Switch
SG300-28SFP 28-port Gigabit SFP Managed Switch
Cisco SG550XG-24F 24-Port 10G SFP+ Stackable Managed Switch
SF 300-08 8-port 10/100 Managed Switch
SG300-10 10-port Gigabit Managed Switch
SF 302-08 8-port 10/100 Managed Switch with Gigabit Uplinks
SG 300-10 10-port Gigabit Managed Switch
SF 300-48 48-port 10/100 Managed Switch with Gigabit Uplinks
Cisco SF350-48 48-port 10/100 Managed Switch
Product Migration Options: Service prices for Cisco products are subject to change after the product End-of-Sale date. The Cisco Takeback and Recycle program helps businesses properly dispose of surplus products that have reached their end of useful life. The program is open to all business users of Cisco equipment and its associated brands and subsidiaries. For more information, go to: http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac227/ac228/ac231/about_cisco_takeback_recycling.html.
For More Information
For more information about the Cisco End-of-Life Policy, go to:
**For more information about the Cisco Product Warranties, go to:
To subscribe to receive end-of-life/end-of-sale information, go to:
EoL and EoS News from
More Cisco EoL and EoS News you can read here:
When your enterprises or organization are going to choose the Cisco ASR 1000 Series, you should know these Cisco ASR 1000 Series Enterprise and Service Provider Applications.
Cisco ASR 1000 Series routers sit at the edge of your enterprise data center or large office connecting to the WAN, as well as in service provider points of presence (POPs). The Cisco ASR 1000 Series will benefit the following types of customers:
- Enterprises experiencing explosive network traffic as mobility, cloud networking, and video and collaboration usage increase: Cisco ASRs consolidate these various traffic streams and apply traffic management and redundancy properties to them to maintain consistent performance among enterprise sites and cloud locations.
- Network service providers needing to deliver high-performance services, such as DCI and branch-office server aggregation, to business customers: Service providers can also use the multiservice routers to deploy hosted and managed services to business and multimedia services to residential customers.
- Existing Cisco 7200 Series Router (end-of-sale) customers looking for simple migration to a new multiservice platform that delivers greater performance with the same design.
Tables2 and Table3 describe enterprise and service provider application examples, respectively.
Table2. Cisco ASR 1000 Series Enterprise Applications
WAN edge: Guarantee high-priority applications by creating a virtual “glass ceiling” for lower-priority applications. Improve user experiences.
● Applies Modular QoS CLI (MQC) policies on VLANs or tunnels
● Limits an arbitrary collection of low‑priority traffic to a certain bandwidth
● Classifies based on differentiated services code point (DSCP), Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR), and Cisco IOS Cisco IOS FPM (FPM) into numerous hierarchies, one for high priority and one for low priority
● Implements flexible hierarchies
● Supports 464,000 queues
● Allows all queues to have a minimum, maximum, and excess bandwidth with priority propagation
Multiservice, scalable, and secure headend:
IP Security (IPsec) VPN aggregation scales to meet the new bandwidth demands of service provider IP VPNs.
● Reduces capital expenditures (CapEx) and operating expenses (OpEx) by migrating and consolidating to fewer Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers
● Protects investment through easy transition to much higher encryption support, offering encryption support of up to 78 Gbps with the 200-Gbps Cisco ASR 1000 Series ESP (ASR1000-ESP200)
● Offers easier management through embedded security services in the Cisco Flow Processor, with no additional service modules or blades required
● Optimized for QoS and IP Multicast applications
● Supports thousands of sites
● Supports 8,000 IPsec tunnels
● Offers up to 78-Gbps encryption performance and up to 200-Gbps noncryptographic throughput support with the Cisco ASR 1000 Series 200-Gbps Embedded Services Processor
Embedded high-speed firewall:
With the Zone-Based Policy Firewall, the Cisco ASR 1000 Series acts as an implicit and complete barrier between any interfaces not members of the same zone. An explicit zone-pair policy must be specified (using Cisco Policy Language; that is, MQC) in each direction between each zone pair. The policy establishes within the router the kind of stateful inspection (Layer 4, Layer 7, or application) and session parameters to apply to each zone pairing.
Example: An explicit policy allowing HTTP and Domain Name System (DNS) to traverse the Internet-demilitarized zone (DMZ) zone boundary would be required.
● The firewall is embedded in the Cisco Flow Processor; no additional service blades or modules are required.
● Multiple gigabits of bandwidth are routed while at the same time the router performs Zone‑Based Policy Firewall and other baseline features such as QoS, IPv4, IPv6, NetFlow, and others.
● The Cisco ASR 1000 Series provides logging of all firewall session states off to network management applications capable of accepting relatively huge amounts of flow data. Third-party applications can handle the session data.
● Provides firewall performance of 2.5 to 200 Gbps, depending on the ESP used
● Offers high-speed logging of 40,000 sessions per second with NetFlow Version 9
Managed CPE: This implementation of branch-office architecture offers powerful investment protection with services and scale.
● Managed customer premises equipment (CPE) helps branch offices route correctly over various types of Ethernet to comply with service-level agreements (SLAs).
● This application encrypts multiple gigabits of bandwidth without any additional service blades or modules.
● Managed CPE optimizes the WAN to route around brownouts in the service provider network to further guarantee mission-critical applications.
● This application offers small form factors (1 rack unit [1RU] for the Cisco ASR 1001-X and ASR 1001-HX and 2RUs for the Cisco ASR 1002-HX and ASR 1002-X Routers), including software modularity and ISSU.
● Note: ISSU is not supported on Cisco ASR 1001-X, ASR 1001-HX, ASR 1002-HX, ASR 1002-X, or ASR 1004. Managed CPE offers accessibility even when the Cisco IOS Software is down.
● Offers first-in-industry software redundancy support, without any additional hardware module, on Cisco ASR 1001-X, ASR 1001-HX, ASR 1002-HX, ASR 1002-X, and ASR 1004; hardware redundancy and ISSU are supported on the Cisco ASR 1006 and ASR 1013.
● Offers powerful firewall and NAT performance of 2.5 to 200 Gbps and 1.8- to 78-Gbps encryption support in addition to WAN optimization and voice features
Table3. Cisco ASR 1000 Series Service Provider Applications
Broadband L2TP Access Concentrator (LAC) or L2TP Network Server (LNS):
The solution offers Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) endpoint-to-tunnel
● The application is ideal for triple-play (data, voice, and video) wholesale deployments.
● It offers integral service delivery.
● Per-user firewall, session border controller (SBC), etc. are supported.
● Provides very high scalability of up to 64,000 subscribers and up to 16,000 tunnels
Service provider edge: Layer 3 VPN (L3VPN) provider edge:
Example: You can deploy the solution at the distributed provider edge or provider edge in global VPN networks for bandwidth demands such as asymmetric DSL (ADSL), T1/E1, STM-1, STM-4, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, etc.
● The application provides integral services in the Cisco Flow Processor.
● It provides encryption, FPM, NBAR, SBC, IP Multicast, etc.
● Offers excellent multicast performance
● Scales to 8,000 Virtual Route Forwarding (VRF) instances, 1 million Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) labels, and 4,000 access control lists (ACLs)
● Supports up to 4 million IPv4 routes
● Supports up to 4 million IPv6 routes
Service provider edge: High-end route reflector:
You can use the solution as a route reflector for bandwidth support of 40 Gbps.
● The application provides high scalability.
● It offers a modular design of the route processor and ESP with hardware and software redundancy.
● Scales up to 29 million IPv4 routes
● Supports 64,000 Layer 3 adjacencies
Next-generation voice and multimedia example: Cisco Unified Border Element Enterprise Edition (ENT Edition):
The SBC application (named Cisco Unified Border Element [ENT Edition]) performs the voice and video gateway functions simultaneously with regular IP data services. No appliance or additional service blade is required. The control protocols and media protocols work transparently within a complex voice architecture. For more information, refer to the CUBE data sheet at http://www.cisco.com/go/cube.
● Secure and authenticated Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trunk connections enable service providers to offer real-time voice and video services.
● The WAN edge is simpler to manage because there is only one egress and one ingress point for access to Internet or service provider services.
● The control plane is separated from the data-forwarding plane, so the signaling and control processes are separate from media processing.
● The CUBE SBC application can be used for SIP trunk video and/or audio services provided by service providers or for Internet-accessible SIP line-side services to Cisco Unified Communications Manager.
● Facilitates SBC with security, QoS, IPv4, and IPv6 (IP Unicast and IP Multicast simultaneously)
● Supports 16,000 simultaneous voice calls and multimedia data of up to 200 Gbps with accounting, firewall, and call quality enabled
● Integrated with inbox high-availability infrastructure and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Relay
In the last article, we told what Li-Fi is and what LiFi system basics are. It seems a cool technology in network communication? Compared to today’s popular Wi-Fi, can you tell some difference between them? In this article we list some main differences between LiFi and WiFi. Which one is better? Let’s check.
We know that Li-Fi is the short form of Light Fidelity and Wi-Fi is the short form of Wireless Fidelity. LiFi uses light for data transmission while WiFi uses electro-magnetic waves at radio frequencies for data transmission. Due to less interference incurred by light compare to radio frequency waves, it is used in more dense environments.
LiFi covers distance of about 10 meters while WiFi covers about 30 meters. Both provides almost same data transfer rate. Let us understand Li-Fi internet and Wi-Fi internet network architectures.
Figure-1: Li-Fi internet
• The figure-1 depicts Li-Fi internet network architecture. As shown in the figure there are two major components in Li-Fi internet viz. LED Lamp and Li-Fi Dongle.
• As shown lamp driver is connected with internet on one end and with LED lamps on the other end. Streaming content from internet are pushed to the LED lamps through Lamp driver software.
• LED lamps are placed at different locations as per requirement in the office or home premises for multiple users.
• Li-Fi dongle is used in order to use Li-Fi internet services by various users. As shown Person#1 is browsing internet in Laptop, Person#2 in tablet and Person#3 in smartphone.
• As shown LiFi dongle is composed of photodetector, amplification & processing and applications for different types of data.
• All the LED lamps can be swithed on and off using a power button switch provided.
• Li-Fi internet provides very fast data rate at 1 Gbps speed.
Figure-2: Wi-Fi internet
• The figure-2 depicts Wi-Fi internet network architecture.
• As shown in the figure there are two major components in WiFi internet viz. WiFi router and WiFi dongle or WiFi Stations.
• WiFi router is connected with ADSL modem or Cable modem. This modem is connected with network of internet service provider.
• WiFi router works on multiple bands (e.g. 2.4 or 4.9 or 5 GHz) as per requirement. It converts internet data packets into wifi compliant signals at above bands. WiFi works on IEEE 802.11 standards.
• These EM waves are received by WiFi dongles or Stations connected with IP compliant devices. Hence WiFi internet is used by various clients as shown in the figure-2.
In the following table we will list the basic difference between LiFi and WiFi technologies.
Feature Comparison: LiFi vs. WiFi
Lifi is not the replacement of wifi technology. It can be considered as incredible companion of the wifi technology. It operates between 380 nm to 780 nm optical range. LiFi is used to exchange data incredibly rapidly and securely at much lower power level compare to WiFi.
Products Based on Li-Fi Technology | Li-Fi products
There are various li-fi products such as lamps, Kits, LiFi smartphone etc. The vendors and OEMs of LiFi products are also mentioned.
OLEDCOMM is a world leader in LiFi products which includes LiFi routers, LiFi hubs, LED drivers, LED lamps and complete kit for lighting system. There are several LiFi kits developed by OLEDCOMM. The kit contains following :
• LED Lamps
• Tablet with Android
• Dongle to use with LiFi Smartphone
• Software library
• location based application for LED Lamps.
Panasonic LiFi Lamp
Panasonic has range of LiFi LED Lamps.
Model: LFS4000PA1 PANASONIC LIFI LAMP
Popular LiFi products with Vendors
Following are the popular LiFi products and their leading vendors.
Info & Reference from
Do you hear of Li-Fi? Maybe you are familiar with Wi-Fi in today’s network world, but you may not know much about the new Li-Fi.
What’s the Li-Fi?
LiFi is the short form of "Light Fidelity". It works on the principle of Visible Light Communication (i.e. VLC). The network is also referred as VPAN or VLC Personal Area Network. The VLC transmits data by intensity modulation. It uses LEDs and Laser diodes (or photo detectors) at transmit and receive ends respectively. It works in 380 nm to 780 nm optical band which is visible light and hence the name VLC.
The VLC standard or VPAN standard defines three classes of devices viz. infrastructure, mobile and vehicle. These devices operate in one of the three topologies mentioned below. The different device has different coverage range, data rate and other requirements.
In this article we will share the LiFi tutorial that covers LiFi system basics. This LiFi tutorial covers LiFi network architecture, LiFi protocol stack, LiFi PHY, LiFi MAC, LiFi bands, LiFi modulation types (OOK, VPPM, CSK).
LiFi Network Topologies
It works in three modes as mentioned above in the figure above. In star topology, communication is established between central controller (i.e. coordinator) and devices. In peer to peer topology, one of the devices should become coordinator at the time of establishing association.
Each device or coordinator has unique 64 bit address. Device can use 16 bit address also upon request at the time of establishing association with coordinator.
LiFi Protocol Stack
The figure above depicts protocol stack used in a typical VPAN device. As shown protocol stack consists of PHY, MAC and upper layers.
Physical layer houses light transceiver. PHY switch housed in PHY layer interfaces with optical SAP which connects it to the optical medium. The optical medium composed of one or multiple optical sources or optical detectors (e.g. laser diodes or photodiodes).
MAC layer provides channel access for all types of data and control message transmissions.
Upper layer consists of network layer and application layer. Network layer takes care of providing network configuration, network manipulation, message routing etc. Application layer takes care of providing intended functionality as needed by the VPAN or LiFi device.
DME (Device Management Entity) is also supported by LiFi or VPAN network architecture. It makes interfacing between dimmer and PHY/MAC a reality.
There are three types of physical layer configurations supported in VLC or LiFi System Viz. PHY-I, PHY-II, PHY-III. Different rates can be achieved in different configurations. They can be used indoor or outdoor.
Refer LiFI PHYSICAL LAYER➤.
MAC layer takes care of resource management i.e. allocation of channels, IDs as well as entire network management. Refer LiFi MAC LAYER➤.
LiFi Modulation Types-OOK, VPPM, CSK
There are different modulation schemes used in different physical layer modes. OOK stands for On Off Keying, VPPM stands for Variable Pulse Position Modulation and CSK stands for Color Shift Keying.
Applications of LiFi or VLC system
There are many applications of LiFi or VLC system as lighting and data communications. Typical among them are lighting, signboards, street lights, vehicles and traffic signals or lights. The figure mentions emerging application of LiFi for internet data communication. It has also become popular due to wide adoption of IoT based technologies.
Benefits of LiFi System
Following are the benefits of LiFi system:
• It transfers data very rapidly.
• It transfers data securely as it can be used in Line of Sight mode of optical signal. It does not pierce through the walls and hence it cannot be easily intruded by hackers.
• It uses much low power for transmission compare to other systems such as WiFi.
Note: Information provided on this page is derived from IEEE 802.15.7-2011 draft version. The standard describes PHY layer and MAC layer of Short Range Wireless Optical Communication using Visible Light. The standard is also referred as VPAN or VLC-PAN. Here 'V' or 'VLC' stands for Visible Light Communication. Pls. refer latest standard specifications published time to time by IEEE for any updates.
Info & Reference from http://www.rfwireless-world.com/Tutorials/LiFi-tutorial.html
What do the Audiences say about the new Li-Fi?
Shabaz202khan Jun 8, 2016
Lifi is nowhere near to become Wifi's alternative. There a huge difference between their working hence, application areas. Wifi is a lot more flexible to use than Lifi. It can be used parallel with wifi but there's no way it will replace wifi completely.
Here are some facts to support my upper statement. No matter how fast or secure Lifi is, there are still few drawbacks and limitations that may stop it from becoming a true alternative to existing wifi. Let me write a few-
1. Range and Line of Sight: This one is pretty common. Lifi requires a direct line of sight to work efficiently; your signal can be interrupted by almost any obstacle lying between you and your lifi source. Light can't pass through walls, hence, your signal is restricted to the room only; where the light can't reach. If you move out of sight of LED, you lose connectivity.
2. Cost: As I already told above, you need to be strictly in direct sight of LED to use it efficiently, meaning you may need at least one device for each of your sitting places in your house. And you also need an individual lifi receiver for each of your device that you want to use the internet on. Plus the fact that you may need to rewire your house too as the lifi LED will need ethernet wire to produce work. The cost is going to be way more than normal Wifi.
Comcast already use Wi-Fi with speeds over 2GBps, faster than the one you are talking. But, but, I belive that I read that Li-Fi is able to get over 200 GBps, so I think you need to update your information about this matter.
Read this http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/apple/iphone/12107410/Future-iPhones-could-feature-Li-Fi-a-technology-100-times-faster-than-Wi-Fi.html
If 1Gbps is 100 times faster than your WiFi, that implies a slow10 Mbps WiFi.
I just transferred, via WiFi, a 3.909 GB rar file from my desktop to my laptop. That took 961 seconds ... which means I got about 32.5 Mbps *REAL* transfer rate. The modem/router from my ISP is about 2 years old and my laptop and desktop are both about 3 years old: might the file transfer have gone faster with newer/better hardware?
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More topics related to internet you can read here: http://blog.router-switch.com/category/internet-2/
The Data Center is a one of popular words in network communication. And it can be definited as a very complex world.
The Data Center not only provides a rich set of services and architectures but also hosts the crown jewels of an organization. It is extremely important to maintain visibility of everything that is happening in the data center.
The concept of “north-to-south” and “east-to-west” is often used in describing the types of communication (or flow) within and to the outside of the data center:
- North-to-south describes communication between end users and external entities.
- East-to-west describes communication between entities in the data center.
The following Figure illustrates the concepts of north-to-south and east-to-west communication.
The data center has many different high-throughput and low-latency requirements, in addition to increased high-availability requirements. In addition, automated provisioning and control with orchestration, monitoring, and management tools are crucial.
The data center architecture consists of three primary modular layers with hierarchical interdependencies:
- Data center foundation: This is the primary building block of the data center, on which all other services rely. Regardless of the size of the data center, the foundation must be resilient, scalable, and flexible to support data center services that add value, performance, and reliability. The data center foundation provides the computing necessary to support the applications that process information and the seamless transport between servers, storage, and the end users who access the applications.
- Data center services: These services include infrastructure components to enhance the security of the applications and access to critical data. They also include virtual switching services to extend the network control in a seamless manner from the foundation network into the hypervisor systems on servers to increase control and reduce operational costs (as well as other application resilience services).
- User services: These services include email, order processing, and file sharing or any other applications in the data center that rely on the data center foundation and services, like database applications, modeling, and transaction processing.
The Figure below illustrates some of the components of the data center services architecture.
Examples of the data center service insertion components include the following:
- Firewalls (In the example illustrated in the Figure above, Cisco ASAs with FirePOWER modules are deployed.)
- Intrusion prevention systems (IPS)
- Application delivery features
- Server load balancing
- Network analysis tools (such as NetFlow)
- Virtualized services deployed in a distributed manner along with virtual machines
- Traffic direction with vPath and Nexus 1000v
- Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI) automated framework components for service insertion
In the case of virtualized environments, the Cisco ASAv (virtual machine) can be deployed to protect VM-to-VM communication. The Cisco ASA FirePOWER module in these environments is not supported, as the Cisco ASAv is just a virtual machine. Cisco FirePOWER virtual machines running network AMP can be deployed in those scenarios.
NOTE: The Cisco ASAv supports both traditional tiered data center deployments and the fabric-based deployments of Cisco ACI environments. The Cisco ASAv can also be deployed in cloud environments like Amazon Web Services (AWS).
The Cisco ASA with FirePOWER modules can be deployed in geographically dispersed cluster environments.
The following Figure shows an example in which four Cisco ASAs with FirePOWER modules are deployed in two separate sites (site A and site B).
In the example illustrated in the Figure above, the cluster of four Cisco ASAs is fully extended between the two data centers, using the cluster control links (CCL) operating at Layer 2 with a latency of less than 10 milliseconds. A single spanned EtherChannel for transient data is used on the cluster side. The local data links are also configured with EtherChannels at the switch pairs on each site.
TIP: The data VLANs between the switches are not extended to prevent network loops.
The Article from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2730336&seqNum=12
Cisco Simplifies Digitization of Audio Video Networks with IEEE Audio Video Bridging
Do you want more audio-video flexibility without spending too much money? If yes, you can try Cisco’s new AVB. What is Audio Video Bridging?
Audio video (AV) equipment deployments have traditionally been single-purpose, analog, point-to-point connections with one-way links. As AV deployments migrate to digital, they have continued to retain this inflexible point to-point architecture. This dedicated connection model also results in a mass of cabling that is difficult and costly to manage. In contrast, an open-standards based Ethernet infrastructure enables flexibility and transparent interoperability of multi-vendor AV equipment and integration of new services.
How did AVB come about, and what does it all mean? AVB is a set of technical standards created by the IEEE Audio Video Bridging Task Group. The IEEE AVB Task Group is a part of the IEEE 802.1 standards committee. IEEE 802.1 defined a set of standards that provided the means for highly reliable delivery of low-latency, time-synchronized AV streaming services through Layer 2 Ethernet networks.
The IEEE 802.1 Audio Video Bridging (AVB) standard enables this digital transition and accelerates the adoption of Ethernet-based AV deployments that are interoperable. The IEEE 802.1 AVB defines a mechanism whereby the endpoints and the network function as a whole. This allows high-quality AV streaming of professional AV over an Ethernet infrastructure. Instead of one-to-one, the network transport enables many-to-many seamless plug-n-play connections for multiple AV endpoints including talkers and listeners. This helps corporations lower total cost of ownership through fewer cables (CapEx) and no license fees for any proprietary technologies (OpEx). It also provides higher quality, time-synchronized AV with more scalability. This scalability includes a more efficient deployment, installation and management enabling new capabilities.
If you want to see how each standard interacts with AVB and for more about the subject, read the “Cisco Audio Video Bridging Design and Deployment for an Enterprise Network” white paper.
Cisco simplifies digitization of AV networks with AVB support on industry leading switches. With the Cisco IOS XE Software Release 16.3, Cisco has introduced support for the IEEE 802.1 AVB standard on select Cisco Catalyst 3850 and select Cisco Catalyst 3650 switches. It delivers the highest-capacity 1-,10- and 40-Gigabit Ethernet ports in the industry.
Cisco implements the AVB standards on select Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series Switches.
The Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series Switches include our widely deployed, industry leading managed access and aggregation switches. They are designed to deliver a comprehensive set of features to provide the best application experience, the highest levels of security, precise control and management of the network. They offer industry-leading scalability in the fixed configuration category of switches. As a result, they can be deployed as aggregation or access switches in large networks or as core switches in smaller networks.
Cisco’s Unified Access Data Plane application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) powers the switches and can enable uniform wired-wireless policy enforcement, application visibility and control (AVC), flexibility and application optimization. Cisco Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series Switches support full IEEE 802.3at Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+), Cisco Universal Power over Ethernet, modular and field-replaceable network modules, RJ45 and fiber-based downlink interfaces, redundant fans and power supplies and innovative power-sharing functions to achieve a flexible and advanced redundant configuration. With speeds that reach 10 Gbps, Cisco Catalyst 3850 Multigigabit Ethernet Switches support current and next-generation wireless speeds and standards—including 802.11ac Wave 2—on existing cabling infrastructure.
Quite simply, these switches are designed to deliver a comprehensive set of features to provide the best application experience, the highest levels of security, and precise control and management of the network.
The Cisco Catalyst 3850 and 3650 switches offer industry-leading scalability in the fixed configuration category of switches. As a result, they can be deployed as aggregation or access switches in large networks or as core switches in smaller networks.
Cisco has also added rich next-generation capabilities to this platform.
Some examples include:
- Services discovery gateway
- Network as a sensor and enforcer
- Encapsulated remote switchport analysis
Try using a Cisco Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series switches to provide AVB. Whether you're in hospitality, government, enterprise or another industry, Cisco AVB is an ideal solution. Deploy it into your current audio-video setup: in conference rooms, auditoriums, and more.
Built on the virtualized Cisco Unified Computing System (Cisco UCS) platform, the Cisco Business Edition 7000 (BE7000) is equipped with premium Cisco Collaboration applications for voice, video, mobility, messaging, conferencing, instant messaging and presence, and contact center. Turn them on as your collaboration needs increase and easily scale your users and devices by deploying additional BE7000 servers. The modular building block design of BE7000 is ideal for deployments from several hundred users to tens of thousands of users, providing plenty of room for future growth.
Here’s what you get:
• Complete service offering: End-to-end collaboration capabilities include voice, video, conferencing, messaging, instant messaging and presence (IM&P), mobility, contact center, and more, for every user on any device from any location.
• Simplified deployment and management: Preconfigured virtualized servers come with ready-to-run virtualization software and ready-to-activate collaboration applications, significantly reducing time to dial tone.
• Scalable and highly available platforms: Get a building-block design: simply stack servers to add more users, devices, and collaboration capabilities. “Pay as you grow” platforms scale to support deployments of any size.
• Open and interoperable architecture: Innovative system transparently supports third-party applications and telepresence and video endpoints.
These powerful, centralized, feature-rich communications and collaboration solutions are optimized for large organizations with thousands of users and devices. And they are all deployed on one converged, centrally managed infrastructure. That means server hardware and virtualized resources are all integrated for easy procurement and faster, more cost-effective implementation.
Cisco Business Edition 7000 is a customizable collaboration solution that can help you:
- Delight your users with interactive, intuitive, easy-to-use collaboration
- Boost productivity with efficient, highly secure, connected workspaces
- Reduce complexity with a simple, easy-to-manage platform
- Lower total cost of ownership with cost-effective, time-saving operations
- Protect investments with a scalable, modular, stackable design
Integrated Versus Separate Solutions
Unified communications applications have joined voice and email as vital services for enterprise environments. With a BE7000, IT can deliver more with far less effort and cost. One integrated and interoperable platform offers all the communications and collaboration services you need. Each solution comes preloaded with all core applications ready to activate. This simplifies and reduces the time required to set up, install, and deploy collaboration capabilities across the organization. And a broad range of third-party applications is also supported, extending the breadth and depth of the platform to support the tools you prefer for your business – all centrally managed with one intuitive, easy-to-use management tool.