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Show ip route command

December 25 2013 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Certification - CCNA - CCNP - CCIE

Displays the entire IP route table, a summary of the routing table or route information for specific IP addresses, network masks or protocols.

Syntax: show ip route [[ipAddress [mask]] [bgp | connected | mpls [ipAddress] [ipAddress/PrefLen] [ipAddress mask] [detail] | isis | ospf | static | summary | multicast |unicast]

ipAddress

Specify an IP address for the IP routes to display.

mask

Specify an IP address mask for the specified IP address.

PrefLen

Specify a Prefix Length for the specified IP address. Valid values = 0 - 31.

Description: Use the show ip route command with no arguments to display all IP routes.

Use the show ip route command with the address argument to display routes to a specific IP address.

Use the show ip route command with the mask argument to display routes with a specific network mask.

Use the show ip route command with the bgpisisospf keyword to display summary information about all routes for the specified protocol.

Use the show ip route multicast command to display active routes used by Multicast protocols.

Use the show ip route unicast command to display active routes used for unicast forwarding.

Use the show ip route connected command to display summary information about all directly connected routes.

Use the show ip route mpls command to display all tunnel related route statistics.

use the show ip route mpls detail to display detailed information of all the tunnels by which each route/prefix is reachable. The detail keyword can optionally be used with all ipAddress variants of mpls.

Use the show ip route static command to display summary information about all statically configured routes.

Use the show ip route summary command to display summary information about all IP routes.

Factory Default: None.

Command Mode: Executive and privileged.

Example 1: In the following example, the show ip route command with no arguments displays all routes:

router>show ip route

Codes: C - connected O - OSPF i - IS-IS

S - static UD - Up/Down bit 1 L1 - level-1

B - BGP E1 - external type 1 L2 - level-2

M - MPLS E2 - external type 2

* - candidate default

m - route's metric

d - administrative distance

S * 0.0.0.0/0 via 10.200.0.1 [d:1 m:0]

S 9.9.9.9/32 via 127.0.0.1 [d:1 m:0]

C 10.200.0.0/16 directly connected to Ethernet 0

i UD 12.2.41.19/32 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:35]

i UD 12.2.41.20/32 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:35]

i UD 12.2.41.21/32 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:35]

i UD 12.2.41.22/32 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:35]

i UD 12.2.41.23/32 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:35]

.

.

.

C 55.55.55.0/24 directly connected to GBE 1/19/2

C 55.55.55.3/32 directly connected to Null 0

S 127.0.0.0/8 via 127.0.0.1 [d:0 m:0]

C 127.0.0.1/32 directly connected to Null 0

i L1 191.191.191.191/32 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:28]

i L1 191.194.1.0/24 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:28]

C 193.193.193.193/32 directly connected to Loopback 0

i L1 194.10.1.0/24 via 55.55.55.1 [d:115 m:28]

C 194.10.2.0/24 directly connected to POS 1/14/2

C 194.10.2.1/32 directly connected to POS 1/14/2

C 194.10.2.2/32 directly connected to Null 0

S 200.1.1.0/24 via 127.0.0.1 [d:1 m:0]

S 200.1.2.0/24 via 127.0.0.1 [d:1 m:0]

S 200.1.3.0/24 via 127.0.0.1 [d:1 m:0]

.

.

.

The following table describes the fields displayed by the show ip route command.

Table 1-8. Fields Displayed by show ip route 

Field

Description

connected

Specifies the route was learned as a result of configuring the interface.

static

Specifies the route was explicitly configured using the ip route command.

BGP

Specifies the route was received from BGP protocol advertisements.

MPLS

Specifies this route carries MPLS data.

external type 1

Specifies the route was imported into the OSPF area from an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR). Further, this route used the cost associated with the link between the ASBR and this router as part of the cost of the route.

external type 2

Specifies the route was imported into the OSPF area from an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR). Further, this route does not use the cost associated with the link between the ASBR and this router as part of the cost of the route.

isis

Specifies this route was received from IS-IS protocol advertisements.

N.N.N.N/nn

Network address and mask of the remote network.

via N.N.N.N

Indicates the next router in the remote network.

directly connected to

Indicates the network is directly connected to a local interface.

UD

Indicates the Up/Down bit is set and that the route was leaked from L2 into L1.

d:

The administrative distance assigned to this route.

m:

The metric assigned to this route.

Example 2: In the following example, the show ip route static command displays information about statically configured routes:

router>show ip route static

S 0.0.0.0/0 via 10.5.0.1 [w:1 m:0]

S 127.0.0.0/8 via 127.0.0.1 [w:0 m:0]

S 131.1.1.0/24 via 127.0.0.1 [w:1 m:0]

S 131.1.2.0/24 via 127.0.0.1 [w:1 m:0]

S 131.1.3.0/24 via 127.0.0.1 [w:1 m:0]

S 131.1.4.0/24 via 127.0.0.1 [w:1 m:0]

Example 3: In the following example, the show ip route summary command displays summary information about all IP routes:

router#show ip route summary 



Route source Networks

connected 12

static 2

bgp 100654

ospf intra-area 1785

total 102453 

The following table defines the fields displayed in the show ip route summary command:

Table 1-9. Fields Displayed by show ip route summary 

Field

Description

connected

These routes were learned as a result of configuring the interface

kernel

These routes were in the kernel before the routing task started running.

static

The number of routes that were explicitly configured using the ip route command.

bgp

The number of routes received from BGP protocol advertisements.

ospf intra-area

The number of routes learned from within this area.

ospf inter-area

The number of routes received from other OSPF areas.

ospf external-1

These routes were imported into the OSPF area from an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR). Further, these routes use the cost associated with the link between the ASBR and this router as part of the cost of the route.

ospf external-2

These routes were imported into the OSPF area from an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR). Further, these routes do not use the cost associated with the link between the ASBR and this router as part of the cost of the route.

isis

The number of routes received from IS-IS protocol advertisements.

total

The total number of routes in the IP route table.

Refer to http://www.powerfast.net

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Logging Options in the Cisco IOS

December 16 2013 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking

For any network administrator, it is a necessary to know how to properly use logging. The Cisco IOS offers a great many options for logging. To help you know them well, we will discuss how to configure logging, how to view the log and its status, and list three common errors when it comes to logging.

The logging command in Global Configuration Mode and the show logging command in Privileged Mode are two simple but powerful tools to configure and show all Cisco IOS logging options. Let's take a closer look.

Configure logging in the Cisco IOS

When configuring logging, the most important command to know is the logging command, used when in Global Configuration Mode. Here's an example of this command and its options.

Configure-logging-in-the-Cisco-IOS-01.jpg

In order to help you know these options in a good way, let’s look at the most common ones.

You can configure the router to send buffered logging of its events to the memory. (Rebooting the router will lose all events stored in the buffered log.) Here's an example:

Router(config)# logging buffered 16384

You can also send the router's events to a syslog server. This is an external server running on your network. Most likely, the syslog server is running on a Linux or Windows server. Because it's external to the router, there's an added benefit: It preserves events even if the router loses power. A syslog server also provides for centralized logging for all network devices.

To configure syslog logging, all you need to do is use the logging command and the hostname or IP address of the syslog server. So, to configure your Cisco device to use a syslog server, use the following command:

Router(config)# logging 10.1.1.1

The Cisco IOS enables logging to the console, monitor, and syslog by default. But there's a catch: There's no syslog host configured, so that output goes nowhere.

There are eight different logging levels.

0—emergencies

1—alerts

2—critical

3—errors

4—warnings

5—notification

6—informational

7—debugging

The default level for console, monitor, and syslog is debugging. The logging on command is the default. To disable all logging, use the no logging on command.

By default, the router logs anything at the level of debugging and greater. That means that logging occurs from level 7 (debugging) up to level 0 (emergencies). If you want to par down what the system logs, use something like the logging console notifications command.

In addition, the router doesn't enable logging to the system buffer by default. That's why you must use the logging buffered command to enable it.

View the status of logging and the logging itself

To view the status of your logging as well as the local buffered log, use the show loggingcommand. Here's an example:

View-the-status-of-logging-and-the-logging-itself.jpg

Note that this router has enabled syslog logging and is sending it to host 10.1.1.1. In addition, console logging is at the debugging level, and the setting for local buffered logging is 10,000,000 bytes.

Three common logging errors

Logging can be frustrating at times. To help prevent some of that frustration, let's look at three common errors.

Not setting the terminal to monitor logging

If you Telnet into a router and can't see some of the logging you're expecting, check to see if you've set your terminal to monitor the logging. You can enable this with the terminal monitor command. To disable it, use the terminal no monitor command.

To determine whether you've enabled monitoring, use the show terminal command, and look for the following:

Capabilities: Receives Logging Output

If you see this, you're monitoring logging output. If it returns none for capabilities, then the monitoring is off.

Using the incorrect logging level

If you can't see logging output, you should also check whether you've set the level correctly. For example, if you've set the console logging to emergencies but you're running debugging, you won't see any debugging output on the console.

To determine the set level, use the show logging command. Keep in mind that you need to set the level to a higher number to see all levels below it. For example, setting logging at debugging shows you every other level.

In addition, make sure you match the type of logging that you want to see with the level you're configuring. If you configure monitor logging to debug but you're on the console and you've set it to informational, you won't see the debug output on the console.

Displaying the incorrect time and date in logs

You may see log messages that don't exhibit the correct date and time. There are a variety of options to control the date and time that appear on logging output (either to the screen or to the buffer). To control this, use the following command:

Router(config)# service timestamps debug ?

  datetime      Timestamp with date and time

  uptime        Timestamp with system uptime

More Notes: Remember that many problems require some kind of historical log to help find a solution. That's why it's important to make sure you've properly configured logging so you can use your logs to see the past.

Reference from http://www.techrepublic.com/

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Show logging

December 11 2013 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Certification - CCNA - CCNP - CCIE

Use the show logging EXEC command to display the state of logging (syslog).

show logging [history]

Syntax Description: history (Optional) Display information in the syslog history table only.

Command Mode: EXEC

Usage Guidelines

This command first appeared in Cisco IOS Release 10.0.

This command displays the state of syslog error and event logging, including host addresses, and whether console logging is enabled. This command also displays Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) configuration parameters and protocol activity.

When you use the optional history keyword, information about the syslog history table is displayed such as the table size, the status of messages, and text of messages stored in the table. Messages stored in the table are governed by the logging history global configuration command.

Sample Display

The following is sample output from the show logging command:

Router# show logging

Syslog logging: enabled

     Console logging: disabled

     Monitor logging: level debugging, 266 messages logged.

     Trap logging: level informational, 266 messages logged.

     Logging to 192.180.2.238

SNMP logging: disabled, retransmission after 30 seconds

    0 messages logged

 

The following table describes significant fields shown in the display.

Field

Description

Syslog logging

When enabled, system logging messages are sent to a UNIX host that acts as a syslog server; that is, it captures and saves the messages.

Console logging

If enabled, states the level; otherwise, this field displays disabled.

Monitor logging

Minimum level of severity required for a log message to be sent to a monitor terminal (not the console).

Trap logging

Minimum level of severity required for a log message to be sent to a syslog server.

SNMP logging

Shows whether SNMP logging is enabled and the number of messages logged, and the retransmission interval.

The following is sample output from the show logging history command:

Router# show logging history

Syslog History Table: 1 maximum table entry, saving level notifications or higher

0 messages ignored, 0 dropped, 15 table entries flushed,

SNMP notifications not enabled

  entry number 16: SYS-5-CONFIG_I

  Configured from console by console

  timestamp: 1110

 

The following table describes the significant fields shown in the display.

Field

Description

maximum table entry

Number of messages that can be stored in the history table. Set with the logging history size command.

saving level notifications or higher

Level of messages that are stored in the history table and sent to the SNMP server (if SNMP notification is enabled). Set with the logging history command.

messages ignored

Number of messages not stored in the history table because the severity level is greater than that specified with the logging history command.

dropped

Number of messages that could not be processed due to lack of system resources. Dropped messages do not appear in the history table and are not sent to the SNMP server.

table entries flushed

Number of messages that have been removed from the history table to make room for newer messages.

SNMP notifications

Whether syslog traps of the appropriate level are sent to the SNMP server. Syslog traps are either enabled or not enabled through the snmp-server enable command.

entry number

Number of the message entry in the history table.

SYS-5-CONFIG_I
Configured from console by console

Cisco IOS syslog message consisting of the facility name (SYS) which indicates where the message came from, the severity level (5), the message name (CONFIG_I), and the message text.

timestamp

Time, based on the router's up time, that the message was generated.

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Adaptive Radio Modules for Cisco Aironet 3600

December 5 2013 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP

The Adaptive Radio Modules are a family of solutions in a modular form factor that allow customers to adapt their wireless network to their current and future needs. The modules provide a dedicated third radio that can be field-upgraded on the 3600 Series access point. These modules allow customers to integrate advanced technology into their existing network without having to replace equipment or install additional equipment. Also, by adding a third radio, the Adaptive Radio Modules expands the access point’s performance and capacity.

Cisco offers three adaptive radio modules for the 3600 Access Point:

 

  • 802.11ac Module
  • Wireless Security and Spectrum Intelligence (WSSI) Module
  • 3G Small Cell Radio Module

Cisco-3G-Small-Cell-Module-for-Cisco-Aironet.jpg

These modules allow customers to integrate advanced technology into their existing network without having to replace or install additional equipment. Also, by adding a third radio, it expands the access point’s capability in terms of performance and capacity.

 

For example, the addition of the WSSI module in a 3600 Access Point allows for advanced security and monitoring features such as CleanAir, wIPS and rogue detection to operate fully on both the 2.4 and 5GHz band without affecting the client traffic associated with the other 2 radios.

Because the module is operating as a dedicated radio, the access point can provide these advanced security features while also services the client traffic. The addition of an adaptive radio module is like adding an additional processor to your access point. Advanced features such as Security and Spectrum Monitoring can operate on a dedicated radio while the access point maintains throughput and performance by serving the client traffic on the two Wi-Fi radios.

 

Special Features, Adaptive Radio Modules

Adaptive Radio Modules allow for the diverse requirements of today’s networks, while future-proofing for the technology of tomorrow. The three flavors of adaptive radio modules provide customers with a leg up on various networking challenges.

-The 802.11ac radio module is the first of its kind in the industry and offers wire-like performance ideal for supporting HD video and high client density deployments

-The WSSI Module delivers always-on spectrum intelligence and proactive security scanning without effecting client performance

-The 3G Small Cell Module allows operators to concurrently offer a Wi-Fi/3G cellular infrastructure in a single access point

What makes Cisco unique is that our 3600 AP is modular designed so it can support different radio types to address emerging client needs, as well as providing investment protection for new and existing deployments.

 

With our Adaptive Radio Modules, Cisco’s strong portfolio touts:

-The first Enterprise Class Access Point to support the new 802.11ac Wave 1 standard

-The first solution to deliver combined Wi-Fi Serving, Spectrum Analysis and Threat Detection & Mitigation into a single Access Point

-The only solution to concurrently provide 3G Small Cell support and state of the art 802.11n-based 4x4 MIMO Wi-Fi

 

Adaptive Radio Modules can be used in the enterprise

Without the flexibility of the Adaptive Radio Modules, a customer in the case of the 802.11ac module and the 3G Small Cell would have to deploy an overlay network to support these additional radios. In the case of the WSSI Module, a customer would have to deploy an additional access point that exclusively monitors the traffic for security and spectrum issues.

In all cases, adding additional equipment to the network is costly in terms of deployment and maintenance but there is a cost factor with running Ethernet cables for the additional equipment and the cost of an Ethernet port that has to be taken up on a switch.

With the Adaptive Radio Modules deployed, there is a reduction in this cost since this technology can be added to an existing deployed network. Cisco estimates that there is a 30%+ CAPEX cost savings by eliminating the need for a separate:

  •  Overlay of additional access points to support 802.11ac, 3G or Security Monitors
  •  Ethernet cabling and Access Layer port required by each additional Access Point
  •  Typical cabling infrastructure costs typically running from $750-$1000 per pull – including labor
  •  Within the Healthcare industry, this cost is typically  2-3 times more

 

With the Adaptive Radio Modules, not only does the customer get the benefits of being able to deploy advanced technology but there is a significant cost saving to be gained as well.

Reference from http://blogs.cisco.com/wireless/adaptive-radio-modules-for-the-3600-series-ap-best-of-interop-2013-finalist/

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Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series Fixed GE Access Switch

December 2 2013 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series Switch delivers converged wired and wireless access on a single platform, creating an uncompromised user experience in any workspace. The converged system provides a single platform for wired and wireless networkwide visibility for faster troubleshooting, advanced security and quality of service (QoS) control, maximum resiliency with fast stateful recovery, and scale with distributed wired and wireless data plane.

 

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 is built on the advanced Cisco StackWise-160, and takes advantage of the new Cisco Unified Access Data Plane (UADP) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This switch can enable uniform wired-wireless policy enforcement, application visibility, flexibility, application optimization, and superior resiliency. The Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series Switches support full IEEE 802.3at Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+), and offer modular and field-replaceable redundant fans and power supplies. They can help you increase wireless productivity and reduce your TCO.

 

All Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series Switches have fixed, built-in uplink ports. Customers can choose from three types of uplink ports at the time of the switch purchase:

• 4 x Gigabit Ethernet with Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP)

• 2 x 10 Gigabit Ethernet with SFP+ or 4 x Gigabit Ethernet with SFP

• 4 x 10 Gigabit Ethernet with SFP+ or 4 x Gigabit Ethernet with SFP

 

The SFP+ interface supports both 10 Gigabit Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ports. Refer to Table 1 for a description of the basic switch models and the corresponding uplink ports. Refer to Table 2 for a description of the various uplink port interface options.

 

Cisco Catalyst 3650 Highlights

Built on Cisco Unified Access Data Plane (UADP) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with programmability to support Cisco ONE Enterprise Networks

Architecture and software-defined networking (SDN)

Integrated wireless LAN controller functionality

Native Flexible NetFlow (FnF) on all ports

Granular, hierarchical bandwidth management

Cisco TrustSec support

 

Cisco Catalyst 3650 Primary Features

Integrated wireless LAN controller capability with:

- Up to 40G of wireless capacity per switch (48-port models)

- Support for up to 25 access points and 1000 wireless clients on each switch or stack

24 and 48 10/100/1000 data and Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+) models with Energy-Efficient Ethernet (EEE)

-Optional Cisco StackWise-160 technology provides scalability and resiliency with 160 Gbps of stack throughput (for additional wired and wireless capabilities, please visit the Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series Switches page)

- Fixed, built-in 4 x Gigabit Ethernet, 2 x 10 Gigabit Ethernet, or 4 x 10 Gigabit

Ethernet Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) and SFP+ uplink ports

- Dual redundant power supplies and three modular fans, providing higher redundancy

- Full IEEE 802.3at (PoE+) with 30W power on all ports in 1 rack unit (RU) form factor

Software support for IPv4 and IPv6 routing, multicast routing, modular QoS, FnF Version 9, and advanced security features

Single, consistent Cisco IOS XE Software image across all license levels, providing an easy upgrade path for access points and software features

Enhanced limited lifetime warranty (E-LLW) with next business day (NBD) advance hardware replacement and 90-day access to Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) support

 

Switch Configurations

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series Switches are available in LAN Base, IP Base, and IP Services feature sets. All switches ship with a default AC power supply. A DC power supply can be purchased as an option or spare. The base switch does not include any access point licenses. Figure 1 shows the Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series.

Figure1. Cisco Catalyst 3650 Series Switches (Front and Back)

Cisco-Catalyst-3650-Series-Switches--Front-and-Back-.jpg

Table1. Compare different switch models.

Model-Comparison-for-Cisco-Catalyst-3650-Series-Switches.jpg

StackWise-160 Technology

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 provides maximum data, power, and wireless resiliency using Cisco StackWise-160 technology, which is built on the highly successful industryleading CiscoStackWise technology. The StackWise-160 technology provides optional stacking with 160 Gbps of bandwidth for providing resiliency within the stack. The stack behaves as a single switching unit that is managed by an active switch elected from one of the member switches. The active switch creates and updates all the switching, routing, and wireless tables. In an event of the active member failure, the standby member assumes the role of the active switch, continuing to keep the stack operational.

 

Cisco Catalyst 3650 Primary Advantages

Converged Wired and Wireless Platform

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 is a stackable platform that converges wired and wireless services on a Cisco IOS XE Software based platform. The CAPWAP tunnels from the access points terminate at the 3650 switch, enabling users to configure and apply software features such as QoS, security, and FnF across wired ports and wireless SSIDs on the same switch at the same time. The converged wired and wireless platform supports the Cisco Unified Access solution. With “one policy, one management, one network,” the Cisco Catalyst 3650 and Cisco Unified Access help IT spend less time running the network and more time on business innovation.

Advanced Security

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 is hardware capable of supporting Cisco TrustSec functionality. Cisco TrustSec uses the device and user credentials acquired during authentication for classifying the packets by security groups as they enter the network with scalability and simplified management. The classification is maintained through the network by the security group tag (SGT) and through integration with the Cisco Identity Services Engine. The Cisco Catalyst 3650 is also hardware-ready for link layer MACsec encryption, which provides networkwide encryption to protect data traffic across the network.

Application Visibility and Control (AVC)

With the native support for FnF on all the ports, the Cisco Catalyst 3650 can monitor both east-west and north-south wired traffic at the same time. The Cisco Catalyst 3650 switch terminates the wireless CAPWAP tunnels from the access point, providing full visibility into the wireless traffic at the switch. Because the wireless traffic is now isible at the switch, it is possible to identify wireless traffic using FnF and prioritize the traffic using advanced QoS capabilities for an improved user experience and faster troubleshooting.

SmartOperations

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 supports Cisco Catalyst SmartOperations. SmartOperations features such as Auto Smartports, Auto QoS, and Smart Install reduce deployment time by automating most of the basic switch and port configurations.

Foundation for Cisco ONE Enterprise Networks Architecture

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 is built on the UADP ASIC, which provides wire-rate hardware performance with software programmability. The UADP ASIC features a programmable data plane, enabling deployment of SDN services and support of future software features over the product lifetime. The Cisco Catalyst 3650 supports the Cisco ONE Enterprise Networks Architecture for openness, programmability, and operational simplicity.

Reduced Total Cost of Ownership

The Cisco Catalyst 3650 reduces the total cost of ownership and provides superior investment protection through:

Built-in wireless controller functionality

Optional stacking

Support for fixed GE or 10 GE uplink

Support for IP Base and IP Services software options

Dual redundant power supply and three individual fans to help ensure high availability

E-LLW with NBD advance hardware replacement and 90-day access to Cisco TAC support

 

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