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How to Reset a Cisco 3900 Router

August 31 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Technology - IT News

Cisco markets the 3900 Series Integrated Services Router, or ISR for short, as their cutting edge option in office network technology. The unit offers an upgradable motherboard. This allows owners to update hardware as more powerful options become available without having to purchase a new router. Cisco also appeals to environmentally conscious consumers with their EngeryWise dual power supplies, which lower electricity costs and support essential redundancy requirements. It is occasionally necessary to reset this powerful networking device, restoring it to factory default settings.

http://www.router-switch.com/productimages/Routers/l/cisco3945.jpg

 

 

Two Metods to Reset a Cisco 3900 Router

Method One

1. Enter "config-register 0x2102" from the router's command prompt window. This gives you access to global configuration mode.

       

2. Enter "show version." The response should read:

router# configure terminal

router (config) #config-register 0x2102

router (config) #end

router#

Repeat the "show version" command.

The response should now read "will be 0x2102 at next reload."

       

3. Enter the command "write erase." This will erase the current start-up configuration.

       

4. Reload the software by entering the "reload" command. Do not save when prompted.

The system display should read:

router#reload

System configuration has been modified. Save? (yes/no): n

Proceed with reload? (confirm)

Confirm that you want the reload to proceed.

       

5. Wait for the reload. The dialog box will read:---System Configuration Dialog---

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? (yes/no)

The router has been reset.

   

Method Two

1. Enter the command "config-register 0x2142."

The response should read:

Router (config)#config-register 0x2142

Repeat the "show version command."

The response should now read "will be 0x2142 at next reload."

       

2. Reload the software by entering the "reload" command. Do not save when prompted. The system should read:

router#reload

System configuration has been modified. Save? (Yes/no): n

Proceed with reload? (Confirm)

Confirm that you want the reload to proceed.

       

3. Wait for the reload. The dialog box will read:

---System Configuration Dialog---

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? (Yes/no) Enter "no."

     

4. Change the configuration register setting to 0x2102. Enter "config-register 0x2102." Enter "write memory." This will overwrite the running configuration.

       

5. Enter the "reload" command. The system configuration dialog will appear again. The router is reset.

 

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Easy Steps to Enable Cisco Switches

August 30 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Routers

Cisco switches are network devices used on data networks to facilitate data transport. For a Cisco switch to be integrated into a network, it must be enabled before custom network configurations can be made. To enable a switch for network use, the switch will need to be named and secured with a privilege execution mode and console password.

 

Things You'll Need

Cisco Catalyst 2960 switch or other Cisco switch capable of IOS command line configuration (Cisco 2940, 2950, 2955 and others), Computer monitor

http://www.router-switch.com/productimages/Switches/v/ws-c2960-24tt-l.jpg

 

How to Enable Cisco Switches       

1. Start the Cisco switch. Be sure that your monitor terminal is interactive with the switch so that you will be able to see the Cisco IOS command-line interface appear on start-up and configure the switch. Once started, the "Switch>" prompt will appear in the command-line interface.

       

2. Configure the switch with the host name network1switch. At the "Switch>" prompt in the IOS command line, type "enable," then press "Enter." The "Switch" prompt will appear. Type "#config terminal" and press "Enter." The "Switch (config)" prompt will appear. Type "#hostname network1switch" and press "Enter." The switch is now named "network1switch" and the next prompt will now read "network1switch (config)."

       

3. Set the privilege execution (exec) mode password to 123catalyst. At the "network1switch (config)" prompt, type "# enable password 123catalyst" and press "Enter." The privilege exec mode password is now 123catalyst. The next prompt will read "network1switch (config)."

       

4. Set the console password to 123cisco. At the "network1switch (config)" prompt, type "#line console 0" and press "Enter." The "network1switch (config-line)" prompt will appear. Type "#password 123cisco" and press "Enter." The console password is now set to 123cisco and the next prompt will read "network1switch (config-line)."

       

5. Configure the console line to require a password at log in. At the "network1switch (config-line)" type "#login" and press "Enter." The switch console line will now require a password at log in. The next prompt will be "network1switch (config-line)."

       

6. End the command-line configuration session. At the "network1switch (config-line)" prompt, type "#end" and press "Enter." The command-line interface session will now end. The new Cisco switch is now named network1switch with a privilege exec mode password of 123catalyst. This switch is further secured by requiring a console password of 123cisco at log in. This switch is now ready for further interface configuration and customization for your network.

 

More tips:

Many Cisco switches require users to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface for device configuration. Familiarity and confidence with working in a command-line environment will enhance an administrator's ability and productivity when configuring many Cisco network devices.

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Why Cisco Cius Survives While HP's TouchPad Fails

August 25 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Technology - IT News

Competition between HP and Cisco has reached epic heights in the past few years, from data center wares to tablets. Here's why Cisco Cius survived even as HP pulled the plug on its TouchPad tablet.

 

With the TouchPad experiencing one of the shortest product lifecycles in IT in the last few years (some argue the Microsoft Kin had a shorter lifespan, but it did get a temporary resurrection), analysts are pointing the finger for its untimely death at a major switch in HP’s strategic focus, product launch delays and confusing marketing. With the TouchPad officially on the chopping block seven weeks after launch, what’s in store for other business tablets, most notably the Cisco Cius?

 

The simultaneous announcement that HP would be selling off its PC unit really shows a difference in the vendor’s focus since the days of Carly Fiorina and Mark Hurd, both of which were focused very much on the PC business. Current CEO Leo Apotheker, however, is a different kettle of fish, said Charles King, principal analyst at Pund-IT. King noted that Apotheker is a data center and software guy, and with terrible sales of the TouchPad in the first few weeks after launch, there was clearly a willingness to abandon the product.

 

“Certainly patience wasn’t the order of the day,” King said.

 

According to Rob Enderle, president and principal analyst of Enderle Group, HP’s acquisition of Palm delayed the release of the TouchPad. Designed to compete with the first generation of the Apple iPad, by the time it hit the market in July, it already seemed out of date and the consumer market had already spoken. Meanwhile, other tablets being released right now were designed to compete with the iPad 2.

 

Mixed marketing messages also may have contributed to the early demise of the TouchPad, Enderle said. Was it a consumer tablet or a business tablet?

 

The TouchPad was kind of a mixed beast. It didn’t have a lot of business attributes to it. The advertising was clearly focused on the consumer. It got lost,” Enderle said.

 

It seems clear that mistakes were made, but what does this mean for business tablets entering the market, most notably one of HP’s biggest rivals, Cisco and its Cius tablet?

 

It’s likely to be good for Cisco, said Michelle Warren, president of MW Research & Consulting. Although there has been a lot of iPad adoption by executives in the business world, IT departments are struggling with managing and securing the devices. They’re looking for an alternative, and the Cisco Cius, which was designed specifically for enterprises in mind (Cisco’s own messaging is not aimed at the consumer at all), is getting some notice. Warren said the Cius is becoming a popular choice, even though it hasn’t even launched yet. When the Cius does launch, it will have one less competitor in the business tablet space, and it’s unlikely Cisco will drop the Cius product line, she said.

 

“There is a need for it in the enterprise space,” Warren said. At the very least, it was designed for enterprise apps and will be easier to manage and secure.

 

However, the question regarding all tablets that sell at or above the iPad's price point is whether they can be viable in an Apple-dominated business, King said. There is likely more leeway for business tablets like the Cius, he added.

 

“Apple is very clearly consumer-focused, although the company insists the iPad and iPhone are ready for the enterprise. I think that’s arguably incorrect, but it may have been a problem with the TouchPad because HP was trying to market it as being used by both businesses and consumers,” King said.

 

To its credit, Cisco has been very clear about its intentions for the Cius, he said. Its primary strengths are in enterprise computing and collaboration.

 

“The environment right now for tablets is extremely challenging, but I think Cisco is obviously in a place where they’re working very hard to curtail costs and reduce red ink,” King said. “If the Cius was really bleeding money, it could be destined for the boneyard, but I think what the company has done to date, at least, is get rid of those products that weren’t within the purview of its enterprise focus, like getting rid of the Flip and some of its other consumer-centric product areas. I think the Cius probably resonates enough with the company’s overall enterprise-centric mandate that it would make less sense for Cisco to put down production on that than it would on something on the more consumer-centric side of the business.”

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Password Recovery Procedure for the Cisco 2900 Integrated Services Router

August 24 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Routers

Perform these steps in order to recover your password:

1.     Either switch off or shut down the router.

2.     Remove the compact flash that is on the rear of the router. This image shows the rear of the Cisco 2951 router:

For more information, refer to Back Panel Slots and Connectors on the Cisco 2921 and 2951 Routers.

the-rear-of-the-2951-router.jpg

3.     Switch on the router.

 

4.     Once the Cisco router is on Rommon mode, reinsert the compact flash.

5.     Type confreg 0x2142 at the rommon 1> prompt in order to boot from Flash.

This step bypasses the startup configuration where the passwords are stored.

6.     Type reset at the rommon 2> prompt.

The router reboots, but ignores the saved configuration.

 

7.     Type no after each setup question, or press Ctrl-C in order to skip the initial setup procedure.

8.     Type enable at the Router> prompt.

You are in enable mode and should see the Router# prompt.

9.     Type configure memory or copy startup-config running-config in order to copy the nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) into memory.

Warning:  Do not enter copy running-config startup-config or write. These commands erase your startup configuration.

 

10.   Issue the show running-config command.

The show running-config command shows the configuration of the router. In this configuration, the shutdown command appears under all interfaces, which indicates all interfaces are currently shut down. In addition, the passwords (enable password, enable secret, vty, and console passwords) are in either an encrypted or unencrypted format. You can reuse unencrypted passwords. You must change encrypted passwords to a new password.

11.   Type configure terminal.

The hostname(config)# prompt appears.

12.   Type enable secret <password> in order to change the enable secret password. For example:

   
 13. hostname(config)#enable secret cisco 
   

14.   Issue the no shutdown command on every interface that you use.

If you issue a show ip interface brief command, every interface that you want to use should display up up.

15.   Type config-register <configuration_register_setting> . Where <configuration_register_setting> is either the value you recorded in step 2 or 0x2102 . For example:

 16. hostname(config)#config-register 0x2102 
   

17.   Press Ctrl-z or end in order to leave the configuration mode.

The hostname# prompt appears.

18.   Type write memory or copy running-config startup-config in order to commit the changes.

 

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Cisco: Tales from the trenches

August 18 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Technology - IT News

14 years ago when Chuck Robbins started at Cisco, “you had a desk and you put your name outside the desk.” Now after more than a decade, the work style at the company has changed nearly beyond recognition, becoming incredibly accommodating to remote teams. And Robbins has thrived in this innovate environment, rising to the position of senior VP and running the organization’s sales team for the Americas.

 

What lessons has Robbins learned from leading through this transition at company that was not only an early adopter of flexible working, but which also builds a number of remote work solutions? He shared his wisdom with WebWorkerDaily.

 

Talent

Do experienced managers of co-located teams just magically make a smooth transition to a virtual workstyle? Not according to Robbins, who is a big believer in training, and not just on the technical challenges of web work.

 

“The technology actually tends to be the easiest part of this whole thing,” he told us, adding that the success of web work is often inhibited by “cultural acceptance by the leadership team that this is how we operate and it’s OK. Some companies equate productivity with being in the office, so I think, first of all, we have to make sure that we provide our leadership with education on things around, how do you manage a remote workforce effectively? What are the things you need to do differently when you can’t walk down the hall and grab them? We give that kind of training.”

 

Tools

Robbins’s pro-training philosophy extends to tech tools as well. He explains that team members are also trained in how to make the best use the of video conferencing solutions Cisco offers, answering questions like, “What sort of things should you be thinking about when you’re presenting to a customer over video and you’re not in the room and everybody else is? Or if you’re in the room and somebody else is remote, how do you make sure you continue to engage them?”

 

Video may play a big role for Robbins’s team, but email doesn’t. “Email is becoming the least favorite mode of communication with our team,” he said. Instead of sending individual messages, Robbins’s employees have “a new platform that we actually designed called Quad. It’s named after the college campus quad where everybody gathers. Think of it as Facebook for enterprise. People can build communities around different topics and they have their profile and their status and then we have integrated instant messaging.”

 

“New technology that enables single number reach for our sales organization,” is the final piece of the puzzle for Robbins’s team. “No matter where you are somebody doesn’t have to keep up with what phone numbers to dial. They dial your office and it rings whatever device you need it to ring,” he said.

 

Tips

In addition to tech and training, Robbins relies on an outcome-based management style to keep his team running smoothly. To succeed as the manager of a virtual team, “you have move to outcome-based performance, and to the extent that you can, outcome based compensation,” he advises. “That cultural thinking that, if you’re at your desk from eight to five, than you’ve been productive is no longer valid, so you’ve got to figure out how you create outcomes and metrics where you can determine success.”

 

All of these pieces have come together to create a deep change in attitudes towards flexible working at Cisco, Robbins concludes. “When we first started working from home, for some reason we didn’t want people to know we were working from home. You didn’t want the dog to bark or the kids to come and say something. You were always trying to mute if the dog was coming around. Today, if you’re working from home and your kid walks in, you tell them to say hello to whoever you’re talking to on the other end because it’s such an accepted thing.”

 

Think something similar won’t be coming to your company anytime soon? Think again, insists Robbins. “Any companies that don’t think they’re going to have to buy in to this approach, I think they’re going to be in trouble. For the first time ever we have conversations with companies about how to build their remote worker infrastructure and their collaboration capability in a way that will enable them to recruit the next generation workforce, because they believe that will be a retention issue. It’s become a strategic recruiting tool for many companies.”

 

Knowledge about Cisco:

Cisco Systems, Inc. is a multinational corporation headquartered in San Jose, California, that designs and sells consumer electronics, networking, voice, and communications technology and services. Cisco’s main network products are Cisco routers, Cisco switches, firewall security, IP Phones VoIP, all these network equipment can meet companies, business, campuses, industries of all size…

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Why Should We Care about Cisco 3560-E Series Switches

August 17 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Routers

Demands on IT infrastructure are changing. Improving network efficiency and articulating the clear value network infrastructure brings to your business have never been more important. The Cisco Catalyst 3560-E Series access and aggregation switches offer networking solutions that can expand with your business without costly upgrades or network disruptions, maximize your network investment, and decrease network costs over time.

 

Increased desktop bandwidth, expanded use of real-time communication and collaboration applications, and the desire to maximize networking investments are changing the way network solutions are designed and implemented. Supporting Gigabit Ethernet to the desktop often requires 10 Gigabit Ethernet connections between the access and aggregation layers to be able to maintain a quality experience for users.

 

These deployments can sometimes face space constraints. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) phones, security cameras, and other devices are requiring Power over Ethernet (PoE) support in networking devices. Purchasing a network solution today that grows with your business and network needs can help ensure your company’s competitiveness and success for tomorrow.

 

10 Gigabit Ethernet Uplinks and the Cisco TwinGig Small Form-Factor Pluggable Converter

The Cisco Catalyst 3560-E features wire-speed 10 Gigabit Ethernet uplink ports for high-bandwidth applications, relieving congestion and helping ensure smooth delivery of data. The TwinGig converter (see Figure 2) converts a 10 Gigabit Ethernet X2 interface into two Gigabit Ethernet Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) ports.

 

Power over Ethernet

The Cisco Catalyst 3560-E Series can provide a lower total cost of ownership for deployments that incorporate Cisco IP phones, Cisco Aironet wireless LAN (WLAN) access points, or any IEEE 802.3af-compliant end device. PoE removes the need for wall power to each PoE-enabled device and eliminates the cost for additional electrical cabling and circuits that would otherwise be necessary in IP phone and WLAN deployments. With the introduction of Enhanced Power over Ethernet the 3560-E Series can scale beyond 15.4W per port delivering maximum solution simplicity for 802.11n access point deployments.

 

Redundant Power System

The Cisco Catalyst 3560-E Series Switches support the Cisco Redundant Power System 2300 (Cisco RPS 2300). The Cisco RPS 2300 (Figure 3) increases availability in a converged data, voice, and video network by providing transparent power backup to two of six attached Cisco Catalyst 3560-E switches at the same time. A power supply can be replaced while the switch is being powered by the Cisco RPS 2300.

 

Cisco Catalyst 3560-E Series Switches

Cisco Catalyst 3560-E Series Switches are an enterprise-class line of standalone access and aggregation switches that facilitate the deployment of secure converged applications while maximizing investment protection for evolving network and  application requirements. Configurations for the Cisco Catalyst 3560-E access switches include 24 and 48 ports of 10/100/1000 Ethernet with dual 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports. Power over Ethernet is available on both the 24-port and 48-port models and can deliver IEEE 802.3af 15.4W class 3 PoE on all ports simultaneously. Combining 10/100/1000 and PoE configurations with 10 Gigabit Ethernet uplinks, the Cisco Catalyst 3560-E enhances worker productivity by enabling applications such as IP telephony, wireless, and video.

 

The Cisco Catalyst 3560-E Series aggregation solutions - the Cisco Catalyst 3560E-12D, a 12-port 10 Gigabit Ethernet aggregation switch, and the Cisco Catalyst 3560E-12SD, a 12-port SFP Gigabit Ethernet aggregation switch with 2 10 Gigabit Ethernet uplink ports, deliver secure nonstop unified network services and versatile connectivity in a one-rack unit (1-RU) form factor for space- and power-constrained environments, enabling businesses to reduce total cost of ownership while maximizing investment protection.

 

Cisco Catalyst 3560-E Series highlights:

    Cisco TwinGig converter module for migrating uplinks from Gigabit Ethernet to 10 Gigabit Ethernet

    PoE configurations with 15.4W of PoE on all 48 ports

    Industry first portfolio to scale beyond 15.4W per port delivering maximum solution simplicity for 802.11n access point deployments

    Access switch models have modular power supply with externally available backup

    Dual redundant modular power supplies and fans for Cisco Catalyst 3560E-12D and Cisco Catalyst 3560E-12SD aggregation switches for nonstop operation

    Multicast routing, IPv6 routing, and access control list (ACL) in hardware

    Out-of-band Ethernet management port along with RS-232 console port

 

Benefits of the Cisco Catalyst 3560-E

Scale your network as your business grows: With the TwinGig converter module, you can convert the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces into dual SFP ports in the access and aggregation layers, allowing you to migrate from Gigabit to 10 Gigabit Ethernet when your business demands change without changing network devices. The Cisco Catalyst 3560E-12D also enables the aggregation of up to 12 10 Gigabit Ethernet links within a compact 1-RU form factor in space-constrained environments. Decrease network costs over time: the Cisco Catalyst 3560-E delivers full PoE (15.4W) on every 10/100/1000 port so that as your needs for PoE and Gigabit Ethernet grow, you are positioned to support them without costly upgrades or complete network replacements.

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Cisco lower Profit, but innovation continues

August 16 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Technology - IT News

In the fiscal third quarter, Cisco’s reported net income fell 18 percent to $1.8 billion or 33 cents a share, from $2.2 billion, or 37 cents, in the year-ago quarter.

 

Stiff competition comes from companies like Juniper Networks and Alcatel-Lucent for corporate customers, including telecommunications companies, hospitals and universities. Meanwhile, Spending by government agencies was particularly weak for Cisco, declining 8 percent in the quarter.

 

Cisco faces additional pressure because of evolving markets and a failure to adapt. Many networking products are now specialized based on the kind of customer, a development that Cisco was late to embrace.

 

How to do? What strategy will cisco take?

 

In an effort to reverse the slide, John T. Chambers, Cisco’s chief executive said that he planned to cut an unspecified number of jobs and potentially eliminate or scale back additional products to lift Cisco’s growth. With about 73,000 employees, the company has already eliminated 550 jobs, offered employee buyouts and killed the Flip video camera as part of his month-old turnaround plan.

 

In addition, Mr. Chambers would take additional steps to streamline Cisco by revamping its complex management structure, which had executives serving on a patchwork of “councils.” Instead of encouraging cooperation, the councils created additional bureaucracy.

 

What’s more, Mr. Chambers e has begun a series of changes intended to focus Cisco on its core products(Cisco router and Cisco switches). He has scaled back the company’s consumer division, which included the Flip video camera, but others may be affected. Cisco said that it expected to save $1 billion over the next 12 months from its job cuts and streamlining. 

 

But the turnaround is expected to take time. It’s a company that has pockets of weakness, but it also has pockets of strength. Let wait and see what happens!

 

From:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/12/technology/12cisco.html?_r=1&ref=ciscosystemsinc

 

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Network Equipment, Basic Knowledge You Need to Get

August 9 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Routers

Computer networking devices are units that mediate data in a computer network. Computer networking devices are also called network equipment, Intermediate Systems (IS) or InterWorking Unit (IWU). Units which are the last receiver or generate data are called hosts or data terminal equipment.

 

The Internet has truly revolutionized the way we communicate. If you actually think about it, the Internet is computer networking at the highest scale of complexity. It’s a continuous link of connected computers that spreads worldwide. How is data transfer and the implementation of networking protocols made possible in this colossal network? It is made possible because of networking devices that regulate data traffic over the whole network, providing connectivity and control. The network design is based on the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. Router, switch, hub and bridge are networking devices that act as mediators at various levels of this networking model.

 

What are the differences in the design and functioning of these networking devices: router, switch, hub and bridge?

Every one of these network devices which we compare in the following is a part of every Large Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) or small private networks. They integrate and connect the network at various levels, while providing control over data flow.

 

The main differences in functionality of Router, Switch, Hub and Bridge

A computer network connected to the Internet is designed to be a self-regulating network that can guarantee the transmission of data to right destinations and regulate overall data transfer. The network can be primarily divided into two types of devices which are terminals (connected computers) and control elements or connecting devices. The role router, switch, hub and bridge play in a computing network determines their basic functionality and difference.

 

Two or more computing networks are connected together by a router. It is charged with the responsibility of controlling the inter network data traffic. They are highly intelligent devices with embedded software that are used to control the flow of data packets across diverse networks.

 

A network switch is charged with the job of connecting smaller segments of a single network into a connected whole. They are extensively used in Ethernet local area networks.

 

A hub connects various Ethernet devices to integrate them into a whole network segment. It is one of the most basic hardware devices that connect two or more Ethernet terminals in a network.

 

A network bridge is nothing more than a type of switch. While a switch has multiple connection ports, a bridge has a single connection port. In the next section, let us have a look at the features of each one of these devices in more detail.

 

Referring to OSI model layers, a router is functional on the network layer of the OSI model, which is also known as level 3. They integrate logical subnet together and their operation is made possible by inbuilt operating systems. They are designed to calculate the best possible path for transmission of data packets between networks. The basis for routing of data through a router is the use of Internet protocol addresses. You might want to check out the OSI model diagram to understand the functions of these devices better.

 

Network switches are functional on the layer 2 of the OSI model. This layer is often referred to as the data link layer. Network switches transfer data across a network segment using MAC addresses for reference.

 

A hub operates only at layer 1 level of OSI model, which is the physical layer. Integrating Ethernet terminals together is its only function and it is a passive device used for data transfer. A bridge is just a type of network switch that connects two network segments together. Like switches, they too operate at the data link layer.

 

All these networking devices provide connectivity and help regulate Internet traffic through local and global Internet networks. Tips of identifying what are main networking hardware help you know the role and function of router, switch, hub and bridge in a network. So which network equipment you select depends on what you need in your home network or business network.

 

More Related:

Common basic networking devices:

Router: a specialized network device that determines the next network point to which it can forward a data packet towards the destination of the packet. Unlike a gateway, it cannot interface different protocols. Works on OSI layer 3.

 

Bridge: a device that connects multiple network segments along the data link layer. Works on OSI layer 2.

 

Switch: a device that allocates traffic from one network segment to certain lines (intended destination(s)) which connect the segment to another network segment. So unlike a hub a switch splits the network traffic and sends it to different destinations rather than to all systems on the network. Works on OSI layer 2.

 

Hub: connects multiple Ethernet segments together making them act as a single segment. When using a hub, every attached all the objects, compared to switches, which provide a dedicated connection between individual nodes. Works on OSI layer 1.

   

Repeater: device to amplify or regenerate digital signals received while sending them from one part of a network into another. Works on OSI layer 1.

 

Some hybrid network devices:

Multilayer Switch: a switch which, in addition to switching on OSI layer 2, provides functionality at higher protocol layers.

   

Protocol Converter: a hardware device that converts between two different types of transmissions, such as asynchronous and synchronous transmissions.

   

Bridge Router (B router): CombineS router and bridge functionality and are therefore working on OSI layers 2 and 3.

 

Hardware or software components that typically sit on the connection point of different networks, e.g. between an internal network and an external network:

 

Proxy: computer network service which allows clients to make indirect network connections to other network services

   

Firewall: a piece of hardware or software put on the network to prevent some communications forbidden by the network policy

   

Network Address Translator: network service provide as hardware or software that converts internal to external network addresses and vice versa

 

Other hardware for establishing networks or dial-up connections:

Multiplexer: device that combines several electrical signals into a single signal

   

Network Card: a piece of computer hardware to allow the attached computer to communicate by network

   

Modem: device that modulates an analog "carrier" signal (such as sound), to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information, as a computer communicating with another computer over the telephone network

   

ISDN terminal adapter (TA): a specialized gateway for ISDN

   

Line Driver: a device to increase transmission distance by amplifying the signal. Base-band networks only.

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Through Force10, Dell Challenges Cisco with Networking Deal

August 2 2011 , Written by ciscorouterswitch Published on #Cisco Routers

Dell Inc.’s deal on Wednesday to buy Force10 Networks will give the world's second-largest computer maker inroads into Cisco Systems Inc.’s turf -- networking.

 

Force10 is a data center networking company that makes Ethernet switchers and routers, and focuses on serving booming social media companies like Facebook and Zynga as well as giants like Google Inc.

 

With the acquisition of Force10 at an undisclosed price, Dell is creating a more serious competitor to Cisco, adding to the networking giant's troubles.

 

Cisco is already facing intense competition from smaller networking companies like Juniper Networks Inc., Check Point Software Technologies, F5 Networks Inc. and Riverbed Technology Inc.

 

Cisco's switching business has seen sales fall in recent quarters, and analysts have argued the company has stretched itself too thin by making several large acquisitions in the consumer market, causing it to lose focus of its core switching and routing businesses.

 

Force10, which generated about $50 million in revenue in the first quarter of 2011, has an edge over competitors.

 

Cisco, Juniper and Brocade Communications Systems Inc. all provide switching and routing technology, although very few like Force10 have the technological capability that creates the backbone of the major data centers, sources said.

 

The deal also means that Dell is no longer interested in buying networking equipment supplier Brocade, whose market capitalization is $2.8 billion, sources said. Dell was reported to be eyeing Brocade as well.

 

Over the past three years Dell has expanded its enterprise portfolio through acquisitions to include server and storage services.

 

In May, Dave Johnson, Dell's senior vice president of corporate strategy, told Reuters that it will continue to seek companies with valuations in the $1 billion to $5 billion range.

 

Dell was advised by Evercore Partners on the Force10 deal. The transaction was the first for technology investment banker Eric Mandl at his new firm. Tor Braham, head of technology M&A at Deutsche Bank, led the deal for Force10.

 

SALE VERSUS IPO

Force10's decision to sell to Dell is the latest in a string of private technology companies in the sector that are opting to sell rather than go public, as tech giants looking to build a broader suite of services swoop in with rich offers.

 

Force10 had filed its initial public offering with the Securities and Exchange Commission last year.

 

But in 2011, the company started discussions with a few interested parties over a sale, one source said.

 

Other companies that have in recent months opted to sell rather than go public include Internet video conferencing service Skype, which sold to Microsoft Corp for $8.5 billion, and Web hosting company Go Daddy which sold itself to a private equity consortium led by KKR and Silver Lake this month for $2.25 billion.

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