- Cisco ONE Software License Portability is an important capability that allows you to reassign license entitlements from one hardware platform to another.
- It is very valuable when refreshing your hardware by eliminating the requirement to repurchase software licenses for new hardware.
Cisco ONE Software License Portability for You
License portability is a key benefit of Cisco ONE Software through Cisco Software Support Service (SWSS). Previously, software application licenses were node-locked to a specific device. Now, when you need to move to a different device, license portability entitles you to move your software licenses to that new device. This allows you to continue using your existing investment in Cisco software and may eliminate the need to repurchase licenses when doing a hardware refresh. Depending on the feature sets you use, license portability can lead to significant savings.
FAQ: More about Cisco ONE Software License Portability
Q. How do I get license portability?
A. First, you must have purchased your licenses through the Cisco ONE Software licensing model. Licenses purchased outside of Cisco ONE Software are not eligible for license portability.
Second, you must have maintained an active Cisco Software Support Services (SWSS) contract from the initial date of purchase, or reinstate support through Cisco’s standard support reinstatement policy.
Q. I currently have Cisco Smart Net Total Care but not Cisco SWSS. Am I eligible for license portability?
A. Cisco Smart Net Total Care provides support for hardware and the platform/OS software. It offers many business critical services like advance hardware replacement. However, Cisco Smart Net Total Care does not provide software license portability for Cisco ONE Software.
To take advantage of license portability, you must have a current Cisco SWSS agreement in place. Cisco SWSS provides the benefits of license portability, software technical support, continuous innovation, updates, and upgrades as well as future software enhancements to Cisco ONE Software products. Cisco SWSS delivers software support in a single offering, making it simple for you to purchase, manage, and renew licenses.
Q. I had a Cisco SWSS contract in the past. Can I reinstate it?
A. If you want to reinstate your software maintenance agreement, then the standard Cisco Application Software Support Contract Reinstatement Policy applies. The reinstatement policy is included in the Software Transfer Relicensing Policy document on Cisco.com. Cisco ONE Software does not have a separate reinstatement policy.
Q. How do these policies apply if I have a subscription agreement? Do I need Cisco SWSS with a subscription contract?
A. Subscription contracts include the equivalent coverage of Cisco SWSS (technical support and upgrades rights) along with the term-based right-to-use license for Cisco ONE Software products and portability rights. These are available at a single price and give you the benefits for the duration of your subscription term. You do not require a separate Cisco SWSS contract.
Cisco SWSS is sold separately only in support of a perpetual license.
Subscription-based licensing will be offered in a future release of Cisco ONE Software. More details will be made available with the future release. 
License Portability Use Cases
Q. What are the main use cases for license portability?
A. There are four main use cases for license portability:
1. Hardware Replacement
2. Equipment Refresh-One-to-One Swap
3. Equipment Refresh-One-to-Many or Many-to-One
4. Moving from a Physical Device to a Virtual Machine, or the Reverse
We will discuss each of these scenarios in detail in the following questions.
Q. I had a hardware failure. The device was/was not under warranty. I do/do not have a Cisco Smart Net Total Care contract. What do I do?
A. Since hardware replacement is outside the scope of the Cisco ONE Software license portability policy, you need to follow existing procedures for hardware replacement. Replacements many be covered under a Warranty Replacementor through Cisco Smart Net Total Care. Or you may replace the hardware with a spare device that you have available.
You need to transfer the existing entitlements - including software licenses and any software maintenance agreements (Cisco SWSS) - to the new device. To transfer the software license, use the Cisco Software Licensing Portal (Cisco.com login required). Service contracts can be updated through the Cisco Service Contract Center (Cisco.com login required).
Q. I need to perform a hardware refresh. Which policies are applicable to software portability when I perform a one-to-one swap of my older devices?
A. The hardware product family on which you have deployed your licenses determines your portability options. Licenses are portable only within a product family (for example, Cisco 2900 Series Integrated Services Routers (ISR) to 2900 Series ISR). Devices with greater capabilities are categorized in a higher series because they gain more benefit from the capabilities in Cisco ONE Software.
There is no cost associated for porting Cisco ONE Software to a device within the same or lower series of a product family, such as Cisco 2901 ISR to 2911 ISR or Cisco 3901 ISR to 2911 ISR. There is a software upgrade fee for refreshing to a higher-series device, such as Cisco 2901 ISR to Cisco 3925 ISR, as you receive greater capabilities. Cisco will publish upgrade SKUs to enable this type of transfer.
For a classification of device families and series for Cisco ONE Software, click here.
The price for Cisco ONE Software will be consistent within a given product family for a given software product.
Table1 provides a consolidated view of the license portability options in a one-to-one equipment refresh scenario.
Table1. Equipment Refresh: One-to-One Swap Use Cases
Refresh a device with a device in the same series
Example: Cisco 2901 ISR to 2911 ISR
If a Cisco SWSS contract is in place, the software can be used on the new device.
Refresh a device with a device in a higher series.
Example: Cisco 2901 ISR to 3925 ISR
You must pay a software upgrade fee to use the software from the original device on the replacement device.
You must purchase an upgraded Cisco SWSS contract for the new software. You will receive a credit for the old support contract.
The cost is the license cost on the new device minus the license cost on the old device, at current list prices, subject to customer-negotiated discounts.
You will also need to consider the cost of the upgraded Cisco SWSS contract.
Refresh a device with a device in a lower series.
Example: Cisco 3925 ISR to 2901 ISR
You are entitled to port the software deployed on your original device to a lower series device; your license entitlement would be set permanently to the lower series device family.
None. However, no reimbursements for the price difference between the higher/lower series is available The support contract remains with the original device family. You will have an option to renew your Cisco SWSS contract at a lower price based on software support for lower series device. Global credit & cancellation policy applies to SWSS contract for existing and new device.
Refresh a device with a next-generation device.
Example: Cisco 3925 ISR to 4000 Series ISR
In this case, the transfer depends on whether the next-generation Cisco 4000 Series ISR is considered to be the same series as the existing device or a higher or lower series. Depending on the series, the policies outlined above apply.
In all cases, you must migrate your software licenses to a next-generation device before your older device reaches end of support. At this stage, your Cisco SWSS contact will have expired and you will not meet the portability criteria.
The series of the next-generation device will determine the cost. Depending on the series, the policies outlined above apply.
Q. I have two 12-port switches that I want to combine into one 24-port switch. Or I have one 24-port switch that I want to break out into two 12-port switches. Does license portability apply in these cases?
A. Cisco ONE Software supports one-to-one license portability. Please refer to one-to-one device swap use case section for additional details.
Table2. Equipment Refresh: One-to-Many or Many-to-One Use Case
I would like to combine two or more devices into a single device, or the reverse.
This is not allowed - only 1:1 license portability is permitted; Further details are provided in the one-to-one swap use case section.
Q. I want to run some of my Cisco software on a virtual machine. Can I port my licenses over to a virtual machine?
A. Yes, you can, but there is an upgrade fee to use your software on a virtual machine (VM). This fee is required because the software contained within the base platform of the device, such as with the operating system, was not included in the original Cisco ONE Software product, but now would be within the VM offer.
The upgrade price is calculated as the license cost of the Cisco ONE Software product as a VM minus the license cost of the Cisco ONE Software product on the physical device. This fee is calculated at current list prices, subject to customer-negotiated discounts. Virtual device licensing will be offered in a future release of Cisco ONE Software. More details and upgrade SKUs will be made available at that time.
Q. Can I port my software licenses to a virtual machine in every use case?
A. No, you can’t. Not all software included in Cisco ONE Software is capable of running on virtual machines. When it can be run on a virtual machine, it is subject to the software license policies described above.
Q. I purchased Cisco ONE Software for a virtual machine, but have changed my mind and would like to run it on a physical device. Can I port my licenses from a virtual machine to a physical device?
A. Yes, but you must purchase the physical device with its base software platform, such as the operating system. You would then be entitled to use the Cisco ONE Software product(s) originally contained on the VM on your new device at no additional charge.
You also retain license portability rights associated with the original VM, so you could subsequently refresh the physical device back to a VM at no additional charge.
License Portability Operations
Q. How do I port the licenses to a new device?
A. Initially, licenses are deployed to physical devices in the same way as in today’s model. Cisco will provide you with activation keys and the correct software images for the new devices. Cisco is working on tools to improve the customer experience with easier deployment of the software products, license management, and capabilities.
Q. I am interested in porting one of the licenses in my product to a different device. Can I do that?
A. Your entitlement for portability is at the product level; for example, Foundation for Data Center Networking. These products cannot be unbundled into their components for portability to different devices. You can, however, deactivate all licenses from the original device and port them to a new device.
Q. Are all of the software capabilities included within Cisco ONE Software portable between different devices, virtual machines, generations of hardware, and so on?
A. The entitlement to the software capabilities is portable, but that doesn’t imply that all devices can run all the software within a Cisco ONE Software product. Cisco will maintain a table that shows what features can be enabled on each device. While you are entitled to the features within your purchased software, you need to verify that the device you intend to operate actually supports those features.
Q. How will I know whether my company is compliant with the software licensing policies?
A. You are responsible for verifying that you remain compliant with the licenses purchased. This typically matters only at times of hardware refresh. Cisco reserves the right to audit the customer environment through a third party to help ensure compliance.
Cisco is creating a software licensing portal that will assist you in tracking your software license entitlements and help you determine whether you are in compliance. These capabilities will be available in a future release.
Q. Is the software included in the base software platform, such as device operating system, controllers and APIs, included in these portability policies?
A. Because the cost of base platform software is included in a device purchase, it is not purchased as part of Cisco ONE Software. In general, base platform capabilities may differ between devices, similar to the hardware differences between devices.
Q. Where can I get more information about Cisco ONE Software?
A. Please visit our website at http://www.cisco.com/go/one or talk to your authorized Cisco representative.
Info from https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/software/one-software/q-and-a-c67-732981.html
The Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Series is available in 8-port to 48-port configurations and supports Power over Ethernet (PoE). Make your network ready for the mobile devices and applications it needs to support with the 2960-L, all at a great value.
The Cisco Catalyst 2960-L is the one meeting your needs and helping you increase reliability in branches and other deployments.
FAQ-Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Series Switches
There are many questions and answers (FAQ) helping you know about the bright features of Catalyst 2960-L switches.
Q. What pluggable transceiver modules are supported by the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches?
A. Refer to the Cisco Transceiver Module Compatibility Matrixes for a complete list of supported modules.
Q. What input voltage is required by the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L?
A. The AC input voltage range is 100V–240V. The AC frequency range is 50Hz–60Hz.
Q. Can the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L be stacked?
A. The 2960-L does not support stacking. The 2960-L switches support clustering for single IP management.
Q. What are the flash and DRAM sizes on the switches?
A. All the switches have 256 MB flash and 512 Mb DRAM.
Q. Do the Cisco Catalyst switches support line rate?
A. Yes, all switches are nonblocking line-rate switches.
Q. What is the software supported on the 2960-L?
A. The Cisco Catalyst 2960-L supports the classic Cisco IOS Software.
Q. How do you manage the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L?
A. The 2960-L can be configured and managed with a CLI or an on-box GUI.
Q. How can a new Cisco Catalyst 2960-L box be configured?
A. The 2960-L switch supports a day-zero GUI that can be used for the initial configuration of the switch.
The switch can also be configured with the CLI using the console port (RJ 45 or USB type B).
Q. Does the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L support routing?
A. No, the 2960-L does not support routing. A default gateway can be configured on the switch pointing to the next hop router.
Q. What is the switch database management (SDM) template for Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches?
A. Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches support unique default templates that cannot be modified.
The switch supports this level of features for 1 SVIs and 64 VLANs:
● Number of IPv4 multicast groups: 1024
● Number of unicast MAC addresses: 8192
● Number of IPv4/IPv6/MAC access control entries: 988
Q. What is the license level on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L?
A. The 2960-L has a LAN lite feature set.
Q. Can the license on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L be upgraded?
A. No, the license level on the 2960-L is fixed. It cannot be upgraded.
Q. What mounting options are available with the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L?
A. The switches are designed for easy and flexible mounting. They can be mounted vertically or horizontally, using one of the following options:
● 8-/16-port SKUs:
◦ Magnet mount (on a desk, wall, or shelf)
◦ DIN rail mount
◦ Rack mount (with rack mount kit)
● 24-/48-port SKUs:
◦ Rack mount (with rack mount kit)
◦ Wall mount
◦ On a desk or shelf
For more information about switch mounting options, see the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Switch Hardware Installation Guide.
Q. What are the recommended switch orientations?
A. Following are the recommended switch orientation options:
● 8-/16-port SKUs:
◦ Upright (on a table)
◦ Inverted (under a desk)
◦ Vertical (on wall, ports facing down)
● 24-/48-port SKUs
◦ Upright (in a rack)
◦ Vertical (on wall, ports facing down)
Q. What are best practices for mounting the fanless switches in closets, under tables, or in other closed environments?
A. Be sure that temperature around the unit does not exceed its maximum limit. Switches are rated to 113°F/45°C (WS-C2960-16PS-LL is rated to 104°F/40°C). Best practices allow for at least 3 inches (7.6 cm) of clearance on all sides and ventilation openings and at least 1.75 inches (4 cm) of clearance above each switch if placed in a rack. Access to ports should be sufficient for unrestricted cabling. The rear-panel power connector should be within reach of an AC power receptacle. When wall-mounting the switch, have the switch align with ports facing down. For more information about best installation practices, see the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Switch Hardware Installation Guide.
Q. Are all the 2960-L models fanless?
A. No, the WS-C2960L-48PS-LL has a fan.
Q. What is the use of the mode button on the switch?
A. The mode button is used for resetting the switch, entering day-zero setup mode, or changing an LED mode.
Q. Do the switches have a front panel out-of-band (OOB) Ethernet management interface?
A. No, the switches do not support the OOB Ethernet management interface.
Q. What can I do with the USB Type A port located on the front of the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Series?
A. As additional storage, the USB Type A port can be used to perform software upgrades, store configurations, and write memory core dumps for troubleshooting purposes. The switch supports Cisco 64 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB, 1 GB, 4 GB, and 8 GB flash drives.
Q. Can a third-party USB flash drive be used with the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L?
A. No, third-party USBs are not supported.
Q. How does cooling work in the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Series switches?
A. Because most of the PIDs of 2960-L Series switches do not have fans, they are cooled by convection. Only the WS-C2960-48PS-LL has a fan inside.
Q. What is the noise level on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches?
A. The switches are silent and produce ambient noise levels. Noise levels for the WS-C2960-48PS-LL:
● Sound pressure at 25°C ambient: LpA (typical) = 35dBA, LpAD (maximum) = 39dBA
● Sound power at 25°C ambient: LwA (typical) = 4.8B, LwAD (maximum) = 5.2B
Q. Do the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches support Smart Install?
A. Yes. The switches support Smart Install client functionality.
Q. Do the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches support the Network Plug and Play (PnP) agent?
A. Yes. PnP technology automates the installation and configuration of Cisco IOS Software using an embedded PnP agent on Cisco Catalyst switches. It requires a preconfigured network PnP server that manages sites; site devices; and their images, configurations, files, and licenses for deployment.
Q. What is the default baud rate of the serial port on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L?
A. The default baud rate is 9600.
Q. Can both console ports be used simultaneously?
A. No. When the USB console is used, the RJ-45 console receives the output of the USB console as well. This design allows the administrator to see when the USB console port is in use. This capability is useful for remote administrators.
Q. Does the switch support autobaud on the console port?
Power and PoE
Q. Do Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches support field-replaceable power supplies?
A. No. Power supplies on all the models are built into the switch.
Q. Does the switch support PoE?
A. Yes, the 2960-L supports PoE. The models that support PoE and the PoE budget are listed in Table 2.
Table2. Models That Support PoE
Available PoE Power
Q. What is the maximum power that can be drawn from a port on the PoE switch?
A. A maximum of 30W can be supported on a single port.
Q. What are the power management features the 2960-L supports?
A. The 2960-L supports IEEE 802.3az Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) and Cisco EnergyWise.
Q. Can the switches be powered using RPS/XPS?
QoS and Security
Q. Does 2960-L support QoS?
A. The Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Series Switches offer intelligent traffic management that keeps everything flowing smoothly. Flexible mechanisms for marking, classification, and scheduling deliver superior performance for data, voice, and video traffic, all at wire speed. Primary QoS features include:
● Up to four egress queues per port and strict priority queuing so that the highest priority packets are serviced ahead of all other traffic
● Weighted round robin (WRR) scheduling and weighted tail drop (WTD) congestion avoidance
Q. What is the egress buffer size?
A. The egress buffer is 1.5 Mb on all 2960-L switches.
Q. How do Cisco Catalyst compact switches help keep unauthorized users from accessing the network?
A. Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches provide superior Layer 2 threat defense capabilities for mitigating man-in-the-middle attacks (such as MAC, IP, and ARP spoofing). They also provide storm control protection and dynamic ARP inspection.
These switches also support advanced security features such as protected port, port-based ACLs, port security, TACACS+, and RADIUS authentication.
Q. What Cisco cyberthreat defense security features do the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches support?
A. The 2960-L switches support threat defense features such as port security, DHCP snooping, and dynamic ARP inspection.
Q. How can I protect administration passwords and traffic going to the switch during configuration or troubleshooting?
A. To protect administration traffic during the configuration or troubleshooting of a switch, the best approach is to encrypt the data using both Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) v3.
Q. Does the 2960-L support a GUI to perform a day-zero switch installation?
A. Yes, the 2960-L supports a day-zero GUI to help with easy deployment of the switch without the need for a CLI. For more details, refer to the day-zero setup document.
Q. Does support for GUI require any additional files to be loaded on the 2960-L?
A. No the tar Cisco IOS Software file contains all the files required for web GUI support.
Q. What browsers can be used for the web GUI?
A. You can use these browsers:
● IE version 8 or later
Hardware and Warranty
Q. What are the hardware warranty and return policy on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L switches?
A. Cisco Catalyst 2960-L Series Switches come with an enhanced limited lifetime warranty (E-LLW). The E-LLW provides the same terms as Cisco’s standard limited lifetime warranty but adds next-business-day delivery of replacement hardware, where available, and 90 days of 8x5 Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) support.
Q. What is the software update policy for the Cisco Catalyst 2960-L?
A. Customers with Cisco Catalyst LAN Lite software feature sets will be provided with maintenance updates and bug fixes designed to maintain the compliance of the software with published specifications, release notes, and industry standards compliance as long as the original end user continues to own or use the product or up to one year from the end-of-sale date for this product, whichever occurs earlier.
If you need some Catalyst 2960-L models, you can get a quote for 2960-L Series
More info of FAQ-Catalyst 2960-L from
What the Cisco Software-Defined Access (SD-Access) Services can do for you? Accelerate your journey to the new network with SD-Access Services
By automating day-to-day tasks such as configuration, provisioning, and troubleshooting, SD-Access reduces the time it takes to adapt the network, improves issue resolution, and reduces the impact of security breaches. This results in significantly simpler operations and lower costs.
The core components that make up the SD-Access solution are:
● Cisco DNA Center
● Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE)
● Network platforms: See the following Table
SD-Access Use Cases: Building on the foundation of industry-leading capabilities, SD-Access can now deliver key business-driven use cases that truly realize the promise of a digital enterprise while reducing total cost of ownership.
Security and segmentation
● Onboard users with 802.1X, Active Directory, and static authentication
● Group users with Cisco TrustSec (security group tags)
● Automate VRF configuration (lines of business, departments, etc.)
● Traffic analysis using AVC and NetFlow is further enhanced using Encrypted Traffic Analytics (ETA)
● Reduced time to provision network segmentation and user groups
● Foundation to enforce network security policies
● Ability to detect and intercept threats at line rate (not samples) from the center to the last mile, including all devices on the network edge
● Single point of definition for wired and wireless users ● Seamless roaming between wired and wireless
● Distributed data plane for wireless access
● Simplified guest provisioning for wired and wireless
● Management of wired and wireless networks and users from a single interface (Cisco DNA Center)
● Ability to offload wireless data path to network switches (reduce load on controller)
● Scalable fabric-enabled wireless with seamless roaming across campus
● Define specific groups for guest users
● Create policy for guest users’ resource access (such as Internet access)
● Simplified policy provisioning
● Time savings when provisioning policies
● Segment and group IoT devices
● Define policies for IoT group access and management
● Device profiling with flexible authentication options
● Simplify deployment of IoT devices
● Reduce network attack surface with device segmentation
Monitoring and troubleshooting
● Multiple data points on network behavior (syslog, stats, etc.)
● Contextual data available per user and device
● Significantly reduce troubleshooting time
● Use rich context and analytics for decision making
Cloud/data center integration
● Identity federation allows exchange of identity between campus and data center policy controllers
● Administrator can define user-to-application access policy from a single interface
● End-to-end policy management for the enterprise
● Identity-based policy enforcement for optimized ACL utilization
● Flexibility when enforcing policy at campus or data center
● Create a single fabric across multiple regional branch locations
● Use Cisco routers as fabric border nodes
● Simplified provisioning and management of branch locations
● Enterprisewide policy provisioning and enforcement
SD-Access 1.0 Hardware and Software Compatibility Matrix
Catalyst 3850 and 3650 Series Switches
Catalyst 4500E Series Switches (Sup8E, Sup9E)
IOS XE 16.6.1
IOS XE 16.6.1
IOS XE 16.6.1
IOS XE 3.10.0E
Fabric border and control plane
Catalyst 3850 Series Fiber Module
Catalyst 6807-XL Switch (Sup6T, Sup2T)
Catalyst 6500 Series Switches
Catalyst 6880-X Switch
Catalyst 6840-X Switch
Nexus 7700 Switch (Sup 2E, M3 line cards only)
4000 Series Integrated Services Routers
ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services
Cloud Services Router (CSR) 1000V (control plane only)
IOS XE 16.6.1
IOS XE 16.6.1
IOS 15.4(1)SY2 IOS 15.4(1)SY2 IOS 15.4(1)SY2 IOS 15.4(1)SY2 NxOS 8.2(1)
IOS XE 16.6.1
IOS XE 16.6.1
IOS XE 16.6.1
Catalyst 3560-CX Series
Catalyst Digital Building Series
802.11 Wave 2 access points: Aironet 1800, 2800 and 3800 Series
802.11 Wave 1 access points: Aironet 1700, 2700 and 3700 Series
Cisco 3504, 5520 and 8540 Series Wireless Controllers
AireOS 188.8.131.52 AireOS 184.108.40.206 AireOS 220.127.116.11
● Wave 1 access points won’t support the following functions when deployed for SD-Access: IPv6, Application Visibility and Control (AVC), NetFlow.
● A device cannot act as fabric edge and fabric border at the same time.
● A device can act as fabric border and fabric control plane at the same time
More info about the Cisco Software-Defined Access you can read here:
- DNA Center is a better way to manage your network. Offers centralized, intuitive management that make it fast and easy to design, provision, and apply policy across your entire network environment.
- Software-Defined Access. The industry’s first policy-based automation from the edge to the cloud takes a logical, policy-based approach that deploys and secures services and adapts to changes faster.
- Analytics and Assurance. Abstracts network insights by collecting data from the network using the Network Data Platform and then identifies service-impacting issues before users do while enabling faster troubleshooting.
- Encrypted Traffic Analytics (ETA). Enhances the ability of the Cisco network to act as a sensor and uncovers threats hidden in encrypted traffic using network analytics (without decryption). These threats are viewed within the Stealthwatch Management Console. ETA enhances the ability of the Cisco network to act as a sensor.
- Network Data Platform collects data from the network, normalizes that data and then sends it to DNA Center to be viewed in the Assurance screen.
- Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series is the first purpose-built platform designed for Cisco DNA. An open and programmable platform with integrated support for wireless and IoT devices. It extends our existing wireless, switch and routing DNA-ready infrastructure.