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Posts with #data center tag

Introducing Cisco Software-Defined Storage Solutions

November 23 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Technology, #IT, #Data Center

Today the Storage plays a more and more important role in the data center: from storing email messages and documents to saving business-critical information, intellectual property, and transaction detail. As businesses continue to become more connected, the old ways of storing and archiving data are changing to accommodate growing amounts of data and demand for anytime, anywhere access to information.

Historically, IT organizations transitioned from systems with individual disk drives to storage arrays that allowed disk drives to be grouped together to form a larger area of capacity. When fast and easy access to more capacity was needed, storage area networks (SANs) and network attached storage (NAS) emerged to deliver capacity over the network. More recently, integrated systems and hyper-converged infrastructure have been added to networks to simplify resource acquisition and deployment and facilitate easy scaling. As companies try to balance storage access, performance, and cost, software-defined storage is becoming more popular, taking this evolution a step farther.

Software-defined storage is the next phase of server virtualization technology, moving beyond virtual machines to virtual data stores. It combines industry-standard x86-architecture servers that are optimized for direct-attached storage (DAS) with a distributed software abstraction layer. This intelligent software transforms systems into a single, logical pool of cost-effective, scale-out storage resources that are easily integrated and managed within your data center.

Cisco Solutions for Software-Defined Storage

Our solutions provide the storage flexibility you need to support growing amounts of data and deliver fast access to information and innovation. You can choose from a variety of systems and expansion cards according to the capacity and performance needs of your users and applications. Our modular approach lets you:

• Reduce risk and complexity: You need confidence that your software-defined infrastructure will work right the first time. Cisco’s collaboration and validation with a large partner ecosystem of software vendors gives you a choice of proven solutions and reference architectures while helping your IT staff integrate storage innovation with your IT processes and business applications at low risk. As a result, you can easily procure the solution you need and accelerate implementation and deployment.

Cisco Solutions Deliver the Foundation for Software-Defined Storage Deployments

Target Environments

  • File, block, and object storage
  • Email servers
  • Collaboration environments
  • Video surveillance archiving
  • Content distribution networks
  • Data protection solutions
  • Private cloud storage

• Gain versatility: The Cisco Unified Computing System (Cisco UCS) portfolio offers a variety of server options for rightsizing your software-defined storage deployments. You can deploy Cisco UCS C-Series Rack Servers to support many common storage scenarios, and use Cisco UCS S-Series Storage Servers when you need highly scalable and available storage infrastructure (Figure 1).

• Scale on demand: You can scale the storage capacity, performance, and protocols used in your software-defined storage infrastructure at your pace and with a smaller increment of scale than with traditional large-scale storage solutions. With the flexibility to choose what to scale and when to scale it, you can start with a small configuration and expand to petabytes of capacity, and you can distribute I/O operations among servers to accelerate I/O operations.

• Improve the efficiency of your IT operations: Cisco UCS Manager provides the automation you need to be efficient. Role- and policybased management makes it easy to deploy terabytes to petabytes of storage capacity in minutes. Cisco UCS service profiles and storage profiles extend these capabilities, allowing you to specify the ways that servers and disk drives should be identified, configured, connected, and used. You can configure hundreds of storage servers as easily as you can configure one, in a repeatable manner.

• Reduce vendor lock-in: Whether you need to support a remote or branch office or a large enterprise data center, our broad ecosystem of partners offers what you need. We work together to test, validate, and document joint solutions so that you can get your softwaredefined storage solutions up and running quickly and with confidence.

Next Steps Call your Cisco sales representative or authorized partner to find out how Cisco UCS solutions can help you create the best software-defined storage solution for your business and applications.

From https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/data-center-virtualization/software-defined-storage-solutions/software-defined-solution.pdf

 

More Related Topics

Cisco’s New Storage Optimized UCS Server-UCS S3260

New Cisco UCS S3260 Storage Server: A Dense and Powerful Server for Scale-out Storage

Cisco UCS S3260-The New Storage Building Blocks

Cisco UCS S3260 Storage Server Big Data and Analytics

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Configuring WCCP? GRE Redirection in WCCP Creates New Tunnel Interfaces

August 11 2015 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Data Center

The WCCP (Web Cache Communication Protocol) was initially designed as a component of IOS whose purpose was to intercept HTTP traffic traversing a router and redirects that traffic to a local cache with the aim of reducing access times to web sites and conserving wide area bandwidth. Typically the packets are redirected from their destination web server on the Internet to a content engine that is local to the client. In some WCCP deployment scenarios, redirection of traffic may also be required from the web server to the client. WCCP enables you to integrate content engines into your network infrastructure. With the introduction of WCCPv2 the scope of the protocol widened to include traffic types other than HTTP allowing the protocol to be used as a more general interception mechanism. In WCCPv2 clients specify the nature of the traffic to be intercepted and forwarded to external devices which are then in a position to provide services, based upon the traffic type, such as WAN optimisation and application acceleration.

Cisco IOS Release 12.1 and later releases allow the use of either WCCP Version 1 (WCCPv1) or Version 2 (WCCPv2).

WCCP VRF Support

The WCCP VRF Support feature enhances the existing WCCPv2 protocol by implementing support for virtual routing and forwarding (VRF).

The WCCP VRF Support feature allows service groups to be configured on a per VRF basis in addition to those defined globally.

Along with the service identifier, the VRF of WCCP protocol packets arriving at the router is used to associate cache-engines with a configured service group.

The interface on which redirection is applied, the interface which is connected to cache engine, and the interface on which the packet would have left if it had not been redirected must be in the same VRF.

In Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33) SRE, this feature is supported only on Cisco 7200 NPE-G2 and Cisco 7304-NPE-G100 routers.

Configuring WCCP

Until you configure a WCCP service using the ip wccp {web-cache | service-number} global configuration command, WCCP is disabled on the router. The first use of a form of the ip wccp command enables WCCP. By default WCCPv2 is used for services, but you can use WCCPv1 functionality instead. To change the running version of WCCP from Version 2 to Version 1, or to return to WCCPv2 after an initial change, use the ip wccp version command in global configuration mode.

If a function is not allowed in WCCPv1, an error prompt will be printed to the screen. For example, if WCCPv1 is running on the router and you try to configure a dynamic service, the following message will be displayed: "WCCP V1 only supports the web-cache service." The show ip wccp EXEC command will display the WCCP protocol version number that is currently running on your router.

Using the ip wccp web-cache password command, you can set a password for a router and the content engines in a service group. MD5 password security requires that each router and content engine that wants to join a service group be configured with the service group password. The password can consist of up to eight characters. Each content engine or router in the service group will authenticate the security component in a received WCCP packet immediately after validating the WCCP message header. Packets failing authentication will be discarded.

SUMMARY STEPS

1. enable

2. configure terminal

3. ip wccp version {1 | 2}

4. ip wccp [vrf vrf-name] {web-cache | service-number} [group-address group-address] [redirect-list access-list] [group-list access-list] [password password [0| 7]]

5. interface type number

6. ip wccp [vrf vrf-name] {web-cache | service-number} redirect {out | in}

7. exit

8. interface type number

9. ip wccp redirect exclude in

Tunnel Interfaces

In IOS versions where WCCP is VRF aware, such as 15.0M and 15.1T, the use of GRE redirection will result in some new tunnel interfaces appearing. On the ASR platform these tunnel interfaces are also present from IOS XE release 2.5 onwards (although VRF support within WCCP on the ASR platform is not present until IOS XE release 3.1).

Examples of the new tunnel interfaces are shown below:

Router#show ip wccp summary
WCCP version 2 enabled, 3 services

Service     Clients   Routers   Assign      Redirect   Bypass    
-------     -------   -------   ------      --------   ------    
Default routing table (Router Id: 30.1.1.80):
web-cache   1         1         HASH        GRE        GRE       
61          1         1         HASH        GRE        GRE       
62          1         1         HASH        GRE        GRE       

Router#show ip interface brief | include Tun
Tunnel0                172.16.0.1      YES unset  up                    up     
Tunnel1                172.16.0.1      YES unset  up                    up     
Tunnel2                172.16.0.1      YES unset  up                    up     
Tunnel3                172.16.0.1      YES unset  up                    up     
Router#

The tunnels are created automatically to process outgoing GRE encapsulated traffic for WCCP. They appear when a cache engine connects and requests GRE redirection. They're not created directly by WCCP, but indirectly via a tunnel API. WCCP has no direct knowledge of these tunnel interfaces, but knows enough to cause packets to be redirected to them. This results in the appropriate encapsulation being applied, after which the packet is then sent to the cache engine. Note that these interfaces are not used in connection with incoming WCCP GRE return packets.

There is one tunnel created per service group that is using GRE redirection, plus one additional tunnel to provide an IP address to allow the other tunnel group interfaces to be unnumbered but still enabled for IPv4. Some information about the tunnels is shown with the command show tunnel groups wccp, although this is unlikely to be useful to the end-user other than to confirm the connection between the tunnels and WCCP.

Router#show tunnel groups wccp             
 WCCP : service group 0 in "Default", ver v2, assgnmnt: hash-table
   intf: Tunnel0, locally sourced
 WCCP : service group 317 in "Default", ver v2, assgnmnt: hash-table
   intf: Tunnel3, locally sourced
 WCCP : service group 318 in "Default", ver v2, assgnmnt: hash-table
   intf: Tunnel2, locally sourced
Router#show tunnel interface t0
Tunnel0
   Mode:multi-GRE/IP, Destination UNKNOWN, Source 30.1.1.80
   Application ID 2: WCCP : service group 0 in "Default", ver v2, assgnmnt: hash-table
   Linestate - current up
   Internal linestate - current up, evaluated up
Router#show tunnel interface t1
Tunnel1
   Mode:multi-GRE/IP, Destination UNKNOWN, Source 172.16.0.1
   Application ID 2: unspecified
   Linestate - current up
   Internal linestate - current up, evaluated up
Router#show tunnel interface t2
Tunnel2
   Mode:multi-GRE/IP, Destination UNKNOWN, Source 30.1.1.80
   Application ID 2: WCCP : service group 318 in "Default", ver v2, assgnmnt: hash-table
   Linestate - current up
   Internal linestate - current up, evaluated up
Router#show tunnel interface t3
Tunnel3
   Mode:multi-GRE/IP, Destination UNKNOWN, Source 30.1.1.80
   Application ID 2: WCCP : service group 317 in "Default", ver v2, assgnmnt: hash-table
   Linestate - current up
   Internal linestate - current up, evaluated up
Router#

Note that service group number shown above is the internal tunnel representation of the WCCP service group number. Group 0 is the web-cache service, but for dynamic services subtract 256 to convert to the WCCP service group number. For interfaces used for redirection, the source address shown is the WCCP router ID.

Information relating to the connected cache engines and encapsulation, including software packet counters, can be seen with the command "show adjacency <tunnel-interface> ...":

Router#show adjacency t0              
Protocol Interface                 Address
IP       Tunnel0                   30.1.1.82(3)
Router#show adjacency t0 encapsulation
Protocol Interface                 Address
IP       Tunnel0                   30.1.1.82(3)
  Encap length 28
  4500000000000000FF2F7D2B1E010150
  1E0101520000883E00000000
  Provider: TUNNEL
  Protocol header count in macstring: 3
    HDR 0: ipv4
       dst: static, 30.1.1.82
       src: static, 30.1.1.80
      prot: static, 47
       ttl: static, 255
        df: static, cleared
      per packet fields: tos ident tl chksm
    HDR 1: gre
      prot: static, 0x883E
      per packet fields: none
    HDR 2: wccpv2
       dyn: static, cleared
      sgID: static, 0
      per packet fields: alt altB priB
Router#show adjacency t0 detail
Protocol Interface                 Address
IP       Tunnel0                   30.1.1.82(3)
                                   connectionid 1
                                   0 packets, 0 bytes
                                   epoch 0
                                   sourced in sev-epoch 1
                                   Encap length 28
                                   4500000000000000FF2F7D2B1E010150
                                   1E0101520000883E00000000
                                   Tun endpt
                                   Next chain element:
                                    IP adj out of Ethernet0/0, addr 30.1.1.82
Router#show adjacency t0 internal
Protocol Interface                 Address
IP       Tunnel0                   30.1.1.82(3)
                                   connectionid 1
                                   0 packets, 0 bytes
                                   epoch 0
                                   sourced in sev-epoch 1
                                   Encap length 28
                                   4500000000000000FF2F7D2B1E010150
                                   1E0101520000883E00000000
                                   Tun endpt
                                   Next chain element:
                                    IP adj out of Ethernet0/0, addr 30.1.1.82
                                    parent oce 0x4BC76A8
                                    frame originated locally (Null0)
                                   L3 mtu 17856
                                   Flags (0x2808C4)
                                   Fixup enabled (0x40000000)
                                         GRE WCCP redirection
                                   HWIDB/IDB pointers 0x55A13E0/0x35F5A80
                                   IP redirect disabled
                                   Switching vector: IPv4 midchain adj oce
                                   IP Tunnel stack to 30.1.1.82 in Default (0x0)
                                    nh tracking enabled: 30.1.1.82/32
                                    IP adj out of Ethernet0/0, addr 30.1.1.82
                                   Adjacency pointer 0x4BC74D8
                                   Next-hop 30.1.1.82
Router#

For more information on configuring WCCP, please refer to the following document:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipapp/configuration/15-1mt/iap-wccp.html

Related Information

Common WAAS/WCCP issues on interactions with Security Devices

Troubleshooting Prepositioning on WAAS 4.1.1 and above

Topic from https://supportforums.cisco.com/document/60636/gre-redirection-wccp-creates-new-tunnel-interfaces

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