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More Reliable Wi-Fi-802.11ax

March 22 2019 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #IT, #Networking, #Technology, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP

You may have heard of Wi-Fi 6 since 2017. Wi-Fi 6 (the newest generation of Wi-Fi) is the next-generation wireless standard that’s faster than 802.11ac, is also known as 802.11ax.

Standards-based Wi-Fi 6 will be available in 2019. Wi-Fi 6 will dramatically improve the wireless experience, and it will enable new use cases for wireless that weren’t possible before.

What are the benefits of Wi-Fi 6? Read the following 6 points.

1. More reliable Wi-Fi

With added reliability, 802.11ax will no longer be the second choice to cellular, with a consistent, dependable network connection that will provide a seamless experience for clients, IoT, and all apps, especially voice and video.

2. More capacity for your network

Addressing the growth of wireless clients, especially IoT, 802.11ax can transmit more data across the airways than previous Wi-Fi standards, as well as serve hundreds and hundreds of active clients per access point.

3. Faster Wi-Fi with more bandwidth

With every new Wi-Fi standard comes an improvement in speed. 802.11ax is no different. It is up to 3 times faster than 802.11ac, improving the user experience and the performance of bandwidth-hungry apps such as voice, video, and collaboration.

4. Improving the 2.4-GHz band is ideal for IoT

The last improvement to 2.4 GHz was 10 years ago with 802.11n. With new improvements to 2.4GHz, 802.11ax is ideal for IoT devices that require more energy efficiency and better Wi-Fi coverage.

5. The Cisco advantage

Cisco goes beyond 802.11ax with innovation such as Cisco DNA Assurance and Intelligent Capture, Flexible Radio Assignment, High Density Experience and CleanAir allowing you to build value across the network, streamline operations, and facilitate business innovation.

6. When can I expect 802.11ax in my network?

Cisco is excited about how 802.11ax will benefit future networks. However, the adoption of 802.11ax, including supporting clients and enterprise-grade access points, is still in the future. Migration to the new standard, as with all such transitions, will take place in phases over time. During this transition period and well into the future, Cisco Aironet 802.11ac Wave 2 access points will be more than capable of meeting the needs of enterprises.

More Related:

See What's Possible with Cisco Wireless Products

FAQ’s: Cisco Aironet Series 2800/3800 Access Point Deployment Guide

Small Campus Suggested Deployment Platforms

Medium Campus Suggested Deployment Platforms

High-density Large Campus Suggested Deployment Platforms

Get more information on Cisco’s wireless solutions

Read more

Cisco Catalyst 9200 Series Transition Guide

February 28 2019 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Switches,, #IT, #Networking, #Technology

Are you preparing for migrating to new Catalyst 9200 Series? The trendy Cisco 9200 Switches will replace the most popular Catalyst 2960-X/XR switches.

Learn more: Catalyst 9200 Switches-Secure, Always on, and IT Simplified

Why Upgrade to Cisco Catalyst 9200 Series? And how to upgrade to the new Catalyst 9200 Series? Read the following Benefits of Upgrading to Cisco Catalyst 9200 Series and Cisco Catalyst 9200 Series Transition Guide.

Benefits of Upgrading to Cisco Catalyst 9200 Series


Catalyst 2960-X



Catalyst 9200


Scale and


Bandwidth per Stack

80 Gbps

80 Gbps

80 Gbps

160 Gbps

Twice the density at nearly the same price

1/10GE Uplinks

4 x 1GE

2 x 10 GE

4 x 1GE

2 x 10 GE

4 x 1GE

4 x 10 GE




Full Flexible NetFlow




TrustSec and SGT



Orchestrate role-based access to corporate resources

Trustworthy Systems


Native MACsec



AES-128, MACsec-128

Simplicity and





Single common network OS across switching, routing, wireless, and IoT

Model-Driven Pogrammability



Standards-based programmable interfaces

Streaming Telemetry



Rich contextual insights

SD-Access Programmability



Automation and Assurance

*1 Except some models.

Transition Map

Existing Model

New Model

Catalyst 2960-X

Catalyst 2960-XR

Catalyst 9200






24 x GE, 4 x SFP





24 x GE PoE+, 4 x SFP




48 x GE, 4 x SFP





48 x GE PoE+, 4 x SFP




24 x GE, 4 x SFP+




24 x GE PoE+, 4 x SFP+




48 x GE, 4 x SFP+





48 x GE PoE+, 4 x SFP+





24 x GE

4 x SFP or 4 x SFP+ Network Modules are supported





24 x GE PoE+

4 x SFP or 4 x SFP+ Network Modules are supported





48 x GE

4 x SFP or 4 x SFP+ Network Modules are supported







48 x GE PoE+

4 x SFP or 4 x SFP+ Network Modules are supported


More Related:

Mapping between Ca3850, 4500E/4500X, Catalyst 6800 and Catalyst 9000

Cisco’s New Intent-based Networking & New Line of Catalyst 9000 Switches

Switching for a Digital World with Catalyst 9000 Switches

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When to Upgrade to 802.11ax?

January 29 2019 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco & Cisco Network, #IT, #Networking, #Technology, #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP

Enterprise and service provider customers alike are in the fortunate position to be able to pick between two great technologies:

• IEEE 802.11ac with MU-MIMO, beamforming, and speeds from 290 to 1300 Mbps within 80 MHz

• IEEE 802.11ax with up to 8 SS and 600 to 1800 Mbps for clients (with 1024 QAM) plus additional predictability for advanced applications

IEEE 802.11ac is available today and is robust for most current customer use cases.

IEEE 802.11ax is the future of wireless LANs, but Wi-Fi-certifiable 802.11ax access points will be available only in several months. Clients (smartphones, tablets, laptops, etc.) supporting 802.11ax are also expected to be available starting in 2019. IEEE 802.11ax will provide:

• 4K/8K video at range to multiple simultaneous users (a true relief to every parent of teenagers in a household for sure)

• Ultra-High-Density (UHD) clients

• Determinism for AR/VR applications and significant power savings, especially for IoT devices

Most enterprise customers deploy new access points at the same time that they fit out a building or retrofit a space. For these customers, we recommend installing 802.11ac wave 2 access points today, because of the sheer value of 802.11ac wave 2. Consider also the infrastructure (port speeds) of the LAN and WAN networks because 802.11ac can deliver higher than gigabit speeds today, and 802.11ax can certainly deliver it tomorrow, so your investment plans for the future make this evaluation relevant today.

Mission-critical applications increasingly require determinism and predictability. IoT scale continues to outpace projections. For these reasons consideration of 802.11ax is warranted. The incremental value of 802.11ax exceeds any reasonable price differential and protects your investment without compromising operational realities today.


IEEE 802.11ax is an exciting new step for wireless LANs. This sixth generation of Wi-Fi will not only deliver higher effective speeds, but will enable new business models and use cases, including:

• Full service provider carrier offload

• IT/IoT convergence

• Real-time applications such as enterprise-grade 4K/8K video or augmented or virtual reality

As with every other recent Wi-Fi advances, 802.11ax is backward-compatible, building on existing technologies and making them more efficient. This scenario enables a graceful installed base transition with ever-increasing gains as the client base converges toward 802.11ax. 802.11ax is worth considering as soon as it’s available, even if the client density for the technology is still evolving. In the meantime, enterprise and service provider customers looking at long-term investments in wireless LANs should strongly consider 802.11ac access points.

Detailed Technical White Paper: IEEE 802.11ax: The Sixth Generation of Wi-Fi

More info https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/white-paper-c11-740788.pdf


More Cisco Wireless Topics:

Cisco’s Wireless Solutions-Deployment Modes

How to Order Cisco ONE for Access Wireless Products?

More: http://blog.router-switch.com/category/technology/wireless/

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HPE ProLiant DL360 Gen10 Server-New Features

December 19 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #HPE Servers, #Networking, #IT, #Technology

The HPE ProLiant DL360 Gen10 Server delivers security, agility and flexibility without compromise. Supports the Intel® Xeon® Processor Scalable Family with up to a 71% performance gain and 27% increase in cores [1], plus 2666 MT/s HPE DDR4 SmartMemory supporting up to 3.0 TB [2] with an increase in performance up to 66% [3]. With the added performance that 12 NVDIMMs and 10 NVMe bring, the HPE ProLiant DL360 Gen10 means business. Deploy, update, monitor and maintain with ease by automating the most essential server lifecycle management tasks with HPE OneView and HPE iLO 5. Deploy this 2P secure platform for diverse workloads in space constrained environments.

HPE ProLiant DL360 Gen10-Features

Industry-leading Performance with Versatile Compute

  1. HPE ProLiant DL360 Gen10 Server supports industry-standard technology leveraging the Intel Xeon Scalable processor with up to 28 cores, 12G SAS and 3.0 TB of 2666 MT/s HPE DDR4 SmartMemory.
  2. With support for up to 12 NVDIMMs per chassis and 2X capacity of first-generation HPE NVDIMMs, HPE ProLiant DL360 Gen10 Server delivers up to 192 GB per system.
  3. Achieve greater capacity with flexible drive configuration options with up to 10 SFF and four LFF drives along with an option to support up to 10 NVMe PCIe SSDs delivers enhanced performance, capacity, and reliability to meet various customer segments and workload requirements at the right economics HPE Persistent Memory, the world’s first non-volatile DIMM (NVDIMM) optimized on HPE ProLiant [5], offers up to 20X reduction in database restart time preserving maximum uptime. [4]

Innovative Design for Flexibility and Choice

The premium 10 SFF NVMe chassis backplane provides the ability to mix and match SAS/SATA and NVMe within the same chassis along with 8 + 2 SFF and 4 LFF chassis that supports new uFF and M.2 storage options.

Embedded 4x 1GbE along with HPE FlexibleLOM or PCIe standup 1GbE, 10GbE, or 25GbE adapters provides flexibility of networking bandwidth and fabric so you can adapt and grow to changing business needs.

Unmatched expandability is packed in a dense 1U rack design with up to three PCIe 3.0 slots.

Security Innovations

HPE iLO 5 enables the world’s most secure industry standard servers with HPE Silicon Root of Trust technology to protect your servers from attacks, detect potential intrusions and recover your essential server firmware securely.

Millions of lines of firmware code run before the server OS boots and with Runtime Firmware Verification, enabled by HPE iLO Advanced Premium Security Edition, the server firmware is checked every 24 hours verifying validity and credibility of essential system firmware.

Secure Recovery allows server firmware to roll back to the last known good state or factory settings after detection of compromised code.

Additional security options are available with Trusted Platform Module (TPM) to prevent unauthorized access to server and securely stores artifacts used to authenticate the server platforms while the Intrusion Detection Kit logs and alerts when the server hood is removed.

Industry-Leading Serviceability and Deployment

HPE ProLiant DL360 Gen10 Server comes with a complete set of services offered by HPE Pointnext, delivering confidence, reducing risk, and helping customers realize agility and stability.

Services from HPE Pointnext simplifies the stages of the IT journey. Advisory and Transformation Services professionals understand customer challenges and design an enhanced solution. Professional Services enables rapid deployment of solutions and Operational Services provides ongoing support.

Services provided under Operational Services include-HPE Flexible Capacity, HPE

Datacenter Care, HPE Infrastructure Automation, HPE Campus Care, HPE Proactive Services and multi-vendor coverage.

HPE IT investment solutions help you transform to a digital business with IT economics that align to your business goals.

[1] Intel measurements: Up to 71% performance increase of Intel Xeon Platinum vs. previous generation E5 v4 average performance based on key industry-standard benchmark calculations submitted by OEMs comparing 2-socket Intel Xeon Platinum 8180 to E5-2699 v4 Family processors. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. May 2017. Up to 27% performance increase of Intel Xeon

Platinum versus previous generation comparing 2-socket Intel Xeon Platinum 8180 (28 cores) to E5-2699 v4 (22 cores). Calculation 28 cores / 22 cores = 1.27 = 27%. May 2017.

[2] Comparing 8 GB NVDIMM to 16 GB NVDIMM equals 2X capacity increase, July 2017.

[3] Percentage compare Gen10 vs Gen9: Gen10 = 12 Channels x 2666 data rate x 8 bytes = 256 GB/sec. Gen 9 = 8 channels x 2400 x 8 bytes = 154 GB/Sec. 256/154 = 1.66 or Gen10 is 66% greater bandwidth, July 2017.

[4] HPE Internal Labs test. HPE Scalable Persistent Memory, restarting 1000 GB Hekaton Database is as fast as restarting 200 GB database or 20x, March 31, 2017.

[5] HPE 8 GB and 16 GB NVDIMMs are the first NVDIMMs supported on HPE ProLiant Gen9 and Gen10 servers.

More Related:

Top-rated HPE DL380, DL360 Servers and MSA Storage

The Highlights of the ProLiant ML30 and DL20 Gen9

HPE Persistent Memory/NVDIMMs for HPE ProLiant Servers

HPE ProLiant Gen10-The World’s Most Secure Industry Standard Servers

How to Buy a Server for Your Business?

How to Choose a Server for Your Data Center’s Needs?

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Cisco’s new 802.11ax-Ready Wireless Controller for the 5G World

November 30 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP, #IT, #Networking, #Technology

Cisco expands Catalyst 9000 portfolio with new 802.11ax-ready wireless controller- Cisco Catalyst 9800 Series Wireless Controllers.

With the new controller, customers can, for the first time, run consistent security, automation and analytics services across wired and wireless environments by leveraging the same OS, according to Cisco. The 9800 series controller can run on premise, in the cloud—public or private—or embedded virtually on Catalyst 9000 switches.

The New Cisco Catalyst 9800 Series Wireless Controllers

The new Cisco Catalyst 9800 wireless controllers are the next generation of wireless infrastructure products that have been built from the ground-up for Intent-based Networking. They are designed to take advantage of Cisco Digital Network Architecture (Cisco DNA™) and Cisco SD-Access. An open and programmable operating system provides flexibility of management and automation. The Cisco Catalyst 9800 is also the first in the line to offer flexible deployment and unprecedented scale options to meet the needs of your growing organization.

The Catalyst 9800 and certain 9200 model switches will be available in the fourth quarter. The remainder of the Catalyst 9200 switches available in the first quarter of 2019.

More Related:

New Catalyst Products-Cisco Catalyst 9200 Switches & Cisco Catalyst 9800 WLC

Cisco’s Wireless Solutions-Deployment Modes

Cisco Catalyst 9300 Series–Tech Overview

Why Migrate to Cisco Catalyst 9300 Switches?

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Suggested Cisco IOS XE Software Releases for Cisco Catalyst 9300/9400/9500 Series Switches

August 15 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Technology

In this article, we will list the suggested Cisco IOS XE Software releases for use with Cisco Catalyst 9300, 9400, and 9500 Series Switches.

If you are running a release prior to the minimum suggested, Cisco advises upgrading the image to the suggested release. These suggestions are general and should not replace environment-specific design review efforts and should not override Advanced Services suggested releases if employed.

General Suggestion

For all the Cisco Catalyst 9300, 9400, and 9500 Series platforms supported on the 16.6.1 Cisco IOS XE Software release train, Cisco suggests using Cisco IOS XE Software Release 16.6.3. 

Customers are advised to migrate from the 16.6.1 release to the 16.6.3 release.

Cisco suggests that you review the Cisco IOS XE Software release notes for the Cisco Catalyst 9300, 9400, and 9500 Series to determine the effects of any open caveats.

In addition, the release notes list the minimum supported releases for specific hardware and software features.

Cisco Catalyst 9300, 9400, and 9500 Series suggested software

Product ID

Suggested Cisco IOS XE Software release
































More Data Sheets of Cat9300, Cat9400 and Cat9500:

Catalyst 9300 Switch Data Sheet

Catalyst 9400 Switch Data Sheet

Catalyst 9500 Switch Data Sheet

For data sheets of Cisco products, you can see Data Sheet Downloads page.

More Related:

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Why Migrate to Cisco Catalyst 9300 Switches?

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Comparison of FlexStack, FlexStack-Plus, and FlexStack-Extended

June 27 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Technology - IT News, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco Modules - Cisco Cables - Cisco Memory, #Technology

Cisco 2960-X Series support FlexStack-Plus and FlexStack-Extended technologies. What are these two stacking solutions that are supported by Catalyst 2960-X Series? And what are differences between them? The following part will list the main features and differences of FlexStack, FlexStack-Plus, and FlexStack-Extended.

Cisco FlexStack-Plus is a hot-swappable, modular stacking solution that provides a true stacking capability, with all switches acting as a single switching unit with a unified data plane, using a single IP address. Cisco FlexStack-Plus is supported by the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series and allows the stacking of up to eight switches, with a throughput of 80 gigabits per second.

Cisco FlexStack-Extended enables long-distance out-of-the-wiring-closet stacking. FlexStack-Extended allows back-panel stacking of up to eight Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series Switches. FlexStack-Extended can be added to the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series with a back stacking slot. 

FlexStack-Extended is available in two module configurations: Fiber module (C2960X-FIBER-STK) and Hybrid module (C2960X-HYBRID-STK).

And the FlexStack-Plus and FlexStack-Extended technologies are similar to FlexStack technology with the differences listed in the Table below.

Table. Comparison of FlexStack, FlexStack-Plus, and FlexStack-Extended







40 Gbps

1–2 sec



80 Gbps

100 msec



40 Gbps

100 msec

STACKING Comparison of Cisco Catalyst 2960 Series Switches







Dual core at 600 MHz

Dual core at 600 MHz

Single core

Single core


FlexStack-Plus, FlexStack-Extended

FlexStack-Plus, FlexStack-Extended



Stack bandwidth

80 Gbps (FlexStack-Plus); 40 Gbps (FlexStack-Extended)

80 Gbps (FlexStack-Plus); 40 Gbps (FlexStack-Extended)

40 Gbps

Stack members




More Q and A tell you about FlexStack combinations, Possible mixed-stack combinations

Q. What are the FlexStack-Plus high-availability features?

A. The following features enhance high availability and manageability across a stack:

●   Cross-stack EtherChannel

●   SPAN

●   FlexLink technology

●   Hitless voice calls

Q. What is the difference between the Hybrid (C2960X-HYBRID-STK) and Fiber (C2960X-FIBER-STK) modules of FlexStack-Extended?

A. The Hybrid module has one copper port that enables short-reach connectivity across a local stack of switches and one SFP+ port for long-range connectivity. The Hybrid module provides investment protection and compatibility with FlexStack-Plus.

The Fiber module has two SFP+ ports supporting long-reach out-of-the-wiring-closet stacking.

Q. What optics are supported on the FlexStack-Extended modules?

A. For information about supported SFP+ modules, refer to the transceiver compatibility matrix at cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/modules/ps5455/products_device_support_tables_list.html.

Q. Which cables are supported with the copper port of the Hybrid module (C2960X-HYBRID-STK) in Cisco FlexStack-Extended?

A. CAB-STK-E-0.5M stacking cable with a 0.5 m length .

CAB-STK-E-1M stacking cable with a 1.0 m length .

CAB-STK-E-3M stacking cable with a 3.0 m length.

Q. What is the minimum Cisco IOS Software version required for FlexStack-Extended?

A. FlexStack-Extended is supported from version 15.2(6)E onward.

Q. What are the stackable models of the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series?

A. The LAN Base and IP Lite feature set models are stackable models in the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series. The LAN Lite feature set model is a standalone model. 

Note: The fanless SKU (WS-C2960X-24PSQ-L with Lan Base) does not support stacking.

Q. Can LAN Base and IP Lite feature set models stack together in the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series?

A. No, LAN Base and IP Lite feature set models cannot be stacked together. LAN Base feature set models can stack with LAN Base feature set models only. Similarly, IP Lite feature set models can stack with IP Lite feature set models only.

Q. Can Cisco Catalyst 2960-X switches stack with Cisco Catalyst 2960-XR switches?

A. No. Cisco Catalyst 2960-X and 2960-XR switches can’t stack together since they don’t share common feature set model.

Q. Is FlexStack-Plus stacking backward compatible with FlexStack?

A. Yes. Unlike competing products, the FlexStack-Plus stacking is backward compatible with FlexStack to preserve customer investment. This allows mixed stacking of Cisco Catalyst 2960-S and Cisco Catalyst 2960-SF LAN Base series with 2960-X LAN Base series for investment protection.

Q. Is FlexStack-Extended supported with FlexStack-Plus?

A. Only the Hybrid module (C2960X-HYBRID-STK) can connect to the FlexStack-Plus module using the copper port.

Q. Is FlexStack-Extended supported with FlexStack?

A. No, FlexStack-Extended is not supported with FlexStack.

Q. What is a mixed stack?

A. The stack is called a mixed stack if it has both the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Switch and Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series Switches. The mixed stack features are limited to Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series features. (See Table1.)

Table1. FlexStack combinations

Stack combination

Max stack bandwidth

Stack limit

Cisco IOS license




IP Lite




LAN Base




LAN Base

Mixed stack: 2960-X (C2960X-STACK) and 2960-S/SF (C2960S-STACK)



LAN Base

Q. Does mixed stacking require any configuration on Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series Switches?

A. Yes. The switch stack speed should be set to 40 using configure mode command “switch stack-speed 40” on Cisco Catalyst 2960-X switches to stack with Cisco Catalyst 2960-S switches. While forming a homogenous stack of Cisco Catalyst 2960-X revert back the stack speed to 80 using “no switch stack-speed 40”.

Q. Can Cisco Catalyst 2960-X and 2960-XR Series Switches stack together?

A. No. Cisco Catalyst 2960-X and 2960-XR Series Switches can’t be stacked together. Even though they belong to the same 2960-X Series, they do not share same Cisco IOS license models.

Q. What are the possible mixed-stack combinations?

A. The LAN Base models can only form mixed stacks. The possible mixed-stack combinations are listed in Table2.

Table2. Possible mixed-stack combinations

Mixed-stack combination


IP Lite


LAN Base

2960-S/SF LAN Base

2960-XR IP Lite




2960-X LAN Base



Yes (C2960X-STACK only)

2960-S/SF LAN Base


Yes (C2960X-STACK only)


Q. Which SDM template should be selected on the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series with LAN Base to form a mixed stack with Cisco Catalyst 2960-S?

A. If Cisco Catalyst 2960-S is running the “default” SDM template, then Cisco Catalyst 2960-X must use the “default” template. If Cisco Catalyst 2960-S is running the “lanbase-routing” template, then Cisco Catalyst 2960-X must use the same.

Q. Can Cisco Catalyst 2960-S be the stack master in a mixed stack of 2960-S and 2960-X switches?

A. Yes. Cisco Catalyst 2960-S can be stack master in a mixed stack.

Q. In a mixed stack of Cisco Catalyst 2960-S and 2960-X, must all the switches be on the same Cisco IOS Software release?

A. Yes. All the switches in the stack, regardless of model, must be on the same Cisco IOS Software release. This includes the rebuild number. The minimum Cisco IOS Software release that will support both 2960-S and 2960-X is 15.0(2)EX.

Q. Can we use FlexStack stacking modules with Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series?

A. No. The form factors of FlexStack-Plus and FlexStack modules are different. The FlexStack stacking module cannot be used with the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series. Similarly, the FlexStack-Plus module cannot be used with the Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series.

Info from https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/catalyst-2960-x-series-switches/qa_c67-728348.html

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Why SELECT Cisco 2960-X Series?

Cisco Catalyst 2960-X vs. 2960-XR Series Switches

Cisco 2960S and 2960-X Series’ Problems from Users

How to Install or Replace an AC Power Supply in a Cisco 2960-X Switch?

Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Comparison & Features

WS-C2960X-48TD-L & WS-C2960XR-48TD-I Tested, from Miercom

FlexStack vs. FlexStack-Plus

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What Factors Will Affect Server Purchases for IT Buyers?

April 20 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #IT, #Technology, #Data Center, #HPE Servers

How many factors do you consider to choose a server? For example, VM and container consolidation, as well as visualization and scientific computing, each affect the decision. Yes, server selection is a quandary for IT, as security, the use of file servers and whether multiple servers of CPU systems will meet enterprise demand plague enterprises.

In the following part, Stephen J. Bigelow (Senior Technology Editor in the Data Center and Virtualization media group at TechTarget Inc.) discussed some important factors on server purchases for your enterprise.

1. Enhanced server security plays a role in server purchases

Although server purchases aren't based solely on security capabilities, there is a proliferation of protection, detection and recovery features to consider for most enterprise tasks. Modern security features now extend well beyond traditional Trusted Platform Modules.

For example, secure servers can offer protection through a hardware-based root of trust, which uses hardware validation of server management platforms, such as an integrated Dell Remote Access Controller, and server firmware as the system boots. Validation typically includes cryptographic signatures to ensure that only valid firmware and drivers are running on the server. Similarly, firmware and driver updates are usually cryptographically signed to verify their authenticity or source. You can execute validations periodically even though the system might not reboot for months. Native data encryption is increasingly available at the server processor level to protect data in flight and at rest.

An increasing number of systems can detect unauthorized or unexpected changes in system firmware images and firmware configurations, enforcing a system lockdown to prevent such changes and alerting administrators when change attempts occur at the firmware level. Servers frequently include persistent event logging, which includes an indelible record of all activity.

And servers benefit from various recovery capabilities. For example, automatic BIOS/firmware recovery can restore firmware to a known goodstate after the system detects any flaw or compromise in the firmware code base. Some systems can apply similar restoration to the OS by detecting possible malicious activity and restoring the OS to a known good state as well. And system erasure features can be used to wipe all hardware configuration settings of the server, including BIOS data, diagnostic data, management configuration states, nonvolatile cache and internal SD cards. System erasure can be particularly important before redeploying the server or removing it from service.

When choosing a server, evaluate the importance of certain features based on the use cases.

When choosing a server, evaluate the importance of certain features based on the use cases.

2. For data servers, focus on network I/O

File servers, or data servers, can take many shapes and sizes depending on the needs of each specific business. The actual compute resources needed in a data server are typically light. For example, file servers rarely process data or make computations that demand extensive processor or memory capacity. Web servers may include more resources if the system will also be running code or back-end applications, such as databases. If the organization plans to employ virtualization to consolidate multiple data servers onto a single physical box, the processor and memory requirements will need a closer look.

However, the emphasis for data servers is more frequently focused on network I/O, which can be critical for accessing shared/centralized storage resources and exchanging files or web content with many simultaneous users -- network bottlenecks are commonplace. If the data server will employ internal storage, the choice of disk types and capacity can have a significant influence on storage access performance and resilience. Data servers can deploy a fast 10 Gigabit Ethernet port or multiple 1 GbE ports, which you can trunk together for more speed and resilience.

As just one example, a modestly configured Dell EMC PowerEdge R430 rack server offers two processor sockets, 16 GB of memory, four 1 GbE ports and a 1 TB 7.2K rpm Serial Advance Technology Attachment (SATA) 6 Gbps disk drive by default. However, you can select the R430 chassis to accept varied disk configurations with up to 10 hot-pluggable Serial-Attached SCSI, SATA, nearline SAS or solid-state drives if the business chooses to place storage in the server itself. You can also enhance network performance through a choice of Peripheral Component Interconnect Express network adapters or storage host bus adapters.

Systems versus CPUs

Many data centers are shrinking as virtualization, fast networking and other technologies allow fewer servers to host more workloads. The quandary for server purchases then becomes server count versus CPU count. Is it better to have more servers or more resources within fewer servers? Packing more capability into fewer boxes can reduce overall capital expenses, data center floor space and power and cooling demands. But hosting more workloads on fewer boxes can also increase risk to the business because more workloads are affected if the server fails or requires routine maintenance. Clustering, snapshot restoration and other techniques can help to guard against hardware failures, but a business still needs to establish a comfortable balance between server count and server capability, regardless of how the servers are used.

The original article from http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/tip/Security-vendor-choices-affect-server-purchases-for-IT-buyers

Outside of cost, what are the biggest factors in your server selection process? Join the Discussion

Read More: HPE Servers Topics

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5 Benefits You Get When Buying a Top of Rack Switch Nexus 3000

April 12 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Technology, #IT, #Data Center

What makes Nexus 3100-V unique? Here is a summary of the most important highlights:

  1. Support of 100G uplinks
  2. Bigger buffer (16MB)
  3. Double System memory (16GB)
  4. Quadruple Ingress ACL: increased from 4,000 to 16,000
  5. VxLAN routing

Watch this video if you’d like to get a brief tour on Cisco campus and watch Houfar Azgomi present the Nexus 3100V.

Cisco Nexus 3100-V platform switches summary



Cisco Nexus 3132Q-V Switch

32 x 40-Gbps QSFP+ ports (all ports are capable of 10 or 40 Gbps)

Cisco Nexus 31108PC-V Switch

48 x 10-Gbps SFP+ ports and 6 x QSFP28 ports (all QSFP ports can operate at 40 or 100 Gbps)

Cisco Nexus 31108TC-V Switch

48 x 10GBASE-T ports and 6 x QSFP28 ports (all QSFP ports can operate at 40 or 100 Gbps)

Cisco Nexus 31108TCV-32T Switch

32 x 10GBASE-T ports and 6 x QSFP28 ports (all QSFP ports can operate at 40 or 100 Gbps)


More Info about Nexus 3100-V Models

The Cisco Nexus 3132Q-V is a 40-Gbps Quad Small Form-Factor Pluggable (QSFP) switch with 32 Enhanced QSFP (QSFP+) ports. It also has 4 SFP+ ports that are internally multiplexed with the first QSFP port. Each QSFP+ port can operate in native 40-Gbps mode or 4 x 10-Gbps mode, with up to a maximum of 104 x 10-Gbps ports.

Cisco Nexus 3132Q-V Switch

The Cisco Nexus 31108PC-V is a 10-Gbps SFP+)–based ToR switch with 48 SFP+ ports and 6 QSFP28 ports. Each SFP+ port can operate in 100-Mbps, 1 Gbps, or 10-Gbps mode, and each QSFP28 port can operate in native 100-Gbps or 40-Gbps mode or 4 x 10-Gbps mode, offering flexible migration options. This switch is a true PHY-less switch that is optimized for low latency and low power consumption.

Cisco Nexus 31108PC-V Switch

The Cisco Nexus 31108TC-V is a 10GBASE-T switch with 48 10GBASE-T ports and 6 QSFP28 ports. This switch is well suited for customers who want to reuse existing copper cabling while migrating from 1-Gbps to 10-Gbps servers. QSFP28 port can operate in native 100-Gbps or 40-Gbps mode or 4 x 10-Gbps mode. The 48 ports support 100MBASE, 1GBASE, and 10GBASE-T, and the 6 QSFP ports support 10, 40, and 100 Gbps.

The Cisco Nexus 31108TCV-32T is the Cisco Nexus 31108TC-V with 32 10GBASE-T ports and 6 QSFP+ ports enabled. The ports are enabled through software licensing. This switch provides a cost-effective solution for customers who require up to 32 10GBASE-T ports per rack. This switch comes with a 32-10GBASE-T port license preinstalled. To enable the remaining 16 10GBASE-T ports, the customer installs the 16-port upgrade license.

Cisco Nexus 31108TC-V and 31108TCV-32T Switch

Learn More: Nexus 3000 Model Comparison & Licensing Options

5 Benefits You Get When Buying a Top of Rack Switch Nexus 3100V:

  1. 100G uplinks: Cisco predicts that global data center IP traffic will grow 31% every year in the next 5 years. For this, it is obvious that 100G is the new norm for higher bandwidth, big data, and IP storage workloads.
  2. 16 MB enhanced buffers: Compared to 12MB buffer from previous generation, the Nexus 3100V models offer 16 MB enhanced buffers to absorb bursts of traffic and applications. You won’t have to worry when you need to expand your network in the future, because these deep buffers are designed for highly oversubscribed environments.
  3. 16 GB Increased system memory: In the previous model – Cisco Nexus 3100XL – Cisco already increased the system memory from 4GB to 8GB in order to introduce network programmability features developed in NXOS 7.x. But as networks are becoming more complex, competitive businesses need more memory to store more objects. Hence, Cisco has doubled the capacity again in the Nexus 3100V models from 8GB to 16GB to improve capacity for object-model programming.
  1. Quadrupled ingress ACL table size to 16,000: for more greater securitytraffic control, enhanced security, and policy management flexibility
  1. Support full VxLAN routing (layer 3 VxLAN): With this, workloads in different segment IDs can directly communicate, whereas with VxLAN bridging (layer 2 VxLAN), workloads need to be in the same segment ID to interact.

Cisco continues to bring you true flexibility and scalability through rich architectural options for any size of data center to address increasing business requirements. You can never go wrong with more connectivity options and a diverse set of form factors to meet ever-changing data center needs.

The original article from



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Cisco Nexus 5500 and Nexus 5600 Licensing Options

April 9 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco Technology - IT News, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Technology, #Cisco License, #Cisco Switches-Software

Different types of licenses are required for the Nexus 5500 and Nexus 5600.

Table 1-15 describes each license and the features it enables.

Table 1-15 Nexus 5500 Product Licensing

Feature License

Product ID


FabricPath Services Package






FCoE NPV Package



Layer 3 Base Services Package


Unlimited static routes and maximum of 256 dynamic routes:

  • Static routes
  • RIPv2
  • OSPFv2 and OSPFv3
  • HSRP
  • VRRP
  • IGMP v2/v3
  • PIMv2 (sparse mode)
  • Routed ACL
  • NAT
  • MSDP
  • Static routes
  • RIPv2
  • OSPFv2 and OSPFv3

Layer 3 Enterprise Services Package


N55-LAN1K9 includes the following features in addition to the ones under N55-BAS1K9 license:

  • VRF Lite
  • PBR
  • PIMv2 (all modes)


Storage Protocols Services Package


Native Fibre Channel



  • FCoE
  • NPV
  • FC Port Security
  • Fabric Binding

Fibre Channel Security Protocol
(FC-SP) authentication

VM-FEX Package



NOTE: To manage the Nexus 5500 and Nexus 5600, two types of licenses are needed: the DCNM LAN and DCNM SAN. Each is a separate license.

More Notes:

Nexus switches have a grace period, which is the amount of time the features in a license package can continue functioning without a license.

Enabling a licensed feature that does not have a license key starts a counter on the grace period. You then have 120 days to install the appropriate license keys, disable the use of that feature, or disable the grace period feature.

If at the end of the 120-day grace period the device does not have a valid license key for the feature, the Cisco NX-OS software automatically disables the feature and removes the configuration from the device. There is also an evaluation license, which is a temporary license. Evaluation licenses are time bound (valid for a specified number of days) and are tied to a host ID (device serial number).


More info from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2762085&seqNum=2


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