Posts with #cisco routers tag
The Cisco Aironet 1242 is a wireless access point created by Cisco. The main difference between this device and most other Cisco products is that the Aironet1242 provides support for mesh wireless networks. Mesh networks extend wireless network range by relaying information from an access point to other access points, instead of requiring that each access point have its own wired backbone connection.
Ethernet cable you first need
Instructions to Use the Cisco Aironet 1242
1. Power on the 1242.
2. Connect your network switch to the "Ethernet" port on the back of the 1242, using the Ethernet cable.
3. Log in to any computer connected to the same network switch. Click "Start," then "Programs." Select "Accessories" and "Telnet." A new Telnet window will come up.
4. Click "Connect," then "Remote system" on the Telnet window. Type the Internet Protocol (IP) of the 1242; the default is 192.168.1.1. Click "Connect."
5. Type the following commands into the Telnet session to configure an IP address for the 1242:
IP address 192.168.40.9 255.255.0.0
Replace "192.168.40.9" and "255.255.0.0" with the IP address and network mask, respectively, assigned to the 1242 by your network's administrator. Press "Enter" after each command.
6. Launch a Web browser on the computer and navigate to the Web address "http://192.168.40.9" (replace the IP address with the one assigned in Step 5). Type "Cisco" as the user name and "Cisco" as the password, then press "Enter." The 1242's configuration utility will come up on the browser.
7. Click "Express Set-up." Type a host name of your choice if the default value is already being used by another 1242 on the same network. Select "Enable" for the "Aironet Extensions" for both the 802.11a and the 802.11g radios. Click "Apply." At that point, the 1242 will provide a wireless network ready for client computers to join.
More Related: Password Recovery on Cisco 1242 Access Point
Main Feature of IPv6
IPv6 address a lot concerns and issues that are faced today in using IPv4. Cisco CCNA Certification requires that a candidate must have a general overview of IPv6 and what new features it brings into the world of networking. Here we will go through some of the features of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).
The main feature of IPv6 are described in the sections below
Larger Address Space
IPv6 addresses are 128-bits long which gives us a theoretical address space of 3.4 x 1038 addresses, like IPv4 some address space is reserved for special purpose but still there is a huge number of public routable addresses.
A larger address space allows for large address allocations to ISPs and Organization. This allows them to use a single prefix for the entire network making summarization easy and flexible which turn promotes efficient and scalable routing.
New Improved Header Format
Optional and non-essential fields are removed from the IPv6 Header and are moved the Extension Header that is placed after the IPv6 Header. Fewer fields of fixed lengths mean Header overhead is minimized and processing performance is improved. Another significant enhancement is that all routers in a path do need to do checksum recalculation for an IPv6 Packet instead error detection is handled by data-link layer technologies checksums of the end-to-end connection at transport layer.
IPv6 addresses are composed of two parts, 64-bit Network Prefix and 64-bit host part. The IPv6 address allocation follows a generally acceptable assignment policy as shown in figure 1. This allows for an efficient, hierarchical, and summarizable routing infrastructure.
Easy Address Assignment Methods
IPv6 has three assignment methods
- DHCPv6 (Stateful)
- Autoconfiguration (Stateless)
An IPv6 host can configure a link-local address for each interface automatically. By using ICMPv6 router discovery messages, a host can also determine the addresses of routers, additional addresses, and other configuration parameters.
IPSec is built into IPv6 unlike IPv4 in which it is optional. IPSec requirement is mandatory in IPv6 Protocol Suite Implementation. IPv6 networks have potentially more end-to-end security because of IPSec availability on all nodes.
New futures for IPv6 can be added through the use of Extension Headers. At present there are various Extension Headers specified for QoS, Security, Mobility and Routing purposes.
Mobility is built in to IPv6 which allows any node to use Mobile IP. Mobility is achieved using Mobility Extension Headers.
Better Quality of Service Support
IPv6 Header includes a new field called Flow Label that allows routers to identify and provide special handling for packets that belong to a particular flow. This field allows for easier identification of traffic without doing any tricks even when the packet payload is encrypted with IPSec.
Neighbor Discovery Protocol
Neighbor Discovery Protocol uses ICMPv6 messages to perform various functions such as
- Stateless Auto-configuration
- Router Discovery
- Prefix Discovery
- Address Resolution
- Neighbor Unreachability Detection
- Link MTU Discovery
- Duplicate Address Detection
- Next Hop Determination
The transition options supported by IPv6 to transition from IPv4 are another key feature of the protocol. Many Transitions mechanism are available for different scenarios. They are mentioned below
- Tunneling IPv6 over IPv4 networks
- Protocol Translation
Within each option are various different techniques to support transition. A few tunneling mechanism are mentioned below
- Static GRE Tunnels
- 6to4 Tunnels
- Automatic IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Tunnels
These rich features of IPv6 enable easy deployment, migration and operation of IPv6 networks.
Anyone can put up a web site. The hard part is helping people discover it, and then stay with it. Your first priority: Make your site people friendly. Your second: Make it search-engine friendly.
Here are a few more specific suggestions:
Design it well. Make it pleasing to the eye, and easy to navigate. If the site has a lot of pages, develop a structure that people can easily navigate, rather than throwing too many links up at once.
Write well. Re-read your text before posting it. Correct spelling and grammar errors. Use clear and concise language.
Stick to your subject(s). Don't be all over the map with content. Keep the site focused, at most, on a handful of topics that you're passionate about.
Link with words, not pictures. For web navigation, a word is worth a million pictures. A link that reads "The eternal allure of the Three Stooges" says more about the page it leads to than a photo of Larry, Moe, and Curly. That holds true for search engines as well as for people.
Use title and description tags. Search engines give priority to the text in these tags, and usually display their contents in result pages. So think carefully about what you want to put here.
Try to read your title through the eyes of a stranger. It should clearly describe the page. See the comments on this post to see how I messed up in this area.
And where do you put this text? In your page's HTML code, the title text goes between the <title>and </title> tags. The description goes inside a meta tag that looks something like this:
· <meta name="description" content="This is where you put the content of your description. It can be longer and thus more descriptive than a title." />.
Describe your images. When you do use pictures, give them descriptive file names. Also, describe the picture in the image tag's alt attribute. The Alt text is there for people who can't see the images, but it also helps search engines. In the HTML code, that tag looks something like this:
· <img src="http://urltopicture/filename.jpg" alt="Put your alt text here" />.
Finally, links can be extremely helpful in drawing people to your site. That's one of several reasons why I always suggest that people read the original forum discussion. And then I include additional links in the italicized "bio" paragraph below.
More news and info about networking you can visit: http://blog.router-switch.com/
With processing speeds up to 2 million packets per second, port- and service adapters ranging from NxDS0 to Gigabit Ethernet, and OC-3 as well as an unparalleled number of high-touch IP services, the Cisco 7200 VXR series is the ideal Services Aggregation WAN/MAN edge device for enterprises and service providers deploying any of the following solutions:
The Cisco 7200 VXR addresses these solution requirements by integrating functions previously performed by separate devices into a single platform. Through this integration, the Cisco 7200 VXR provides a single, cost-effective platform that supports:
The Cisco 7200 VXR Router Series with Network Processing Engine NPE-G2
The Cisco 7200 VXR Series offers a rich set of capabilities that address requirements for performance, density, high reliability, availability, serviceability, and manageability.
Cisco 7200 VXR Features and Benefit
Hardware for Cisco 7200 VXR Series Router includes:
More Notes: If you need to know more about Cisco 7200VXR series (for enterprise head offices and service provider edge), such as its applications, Specifications--- Cards, Ports, Slots; Components--- Chassis, Environmental Conditions; Processors, Input/Output Controllers, Port Adapter Jacket Card, Interfaces, Performance---Memory; Network Management, Power; Protocols; Product Regulatory Approvals and Compliance; Software Requirements, you can visit Cisco's official website...
Over the last several years, the technology industry has been facing a number of different challenges. This is because the sector has experienced tremendous amounts of growth that were related to the evolution of the Internet. At the same time many different consumer devices (i.e. smartphones, tablets and readers) have given everyone the power to access the latest information on the go. This has caused a number of firms to experience rapid increases in their growth rates and earnings per share.
In the case of Cisco Systems (CSCO), it has been realizing similar trends. As it has been supporting the expansion of the internet through the various routers/switches it is selling and the IT security solutions it offers. This has helped the firm to experience above average rates of growth of 10.9% in revenues and 26.6% in growth from 2009 to 2010, and remains a proverbial cash cow.
The problem is that the company has lost its focus by going into ventures that are not considered to be profitable and it has seen declining demand from its core customers. This is a common trend that occurs in some of the strongest industries (at some point in time). As this is measured through the S Curve, which states that customer needs will start to slow after periods of rapid growth. The reason why is due to the fact that the industry was able to effectively address them over the course of many years. Under this approach is when a firm will enter a period of flat to negative declines in their earnings. The reason why is because management will believe that these kinds of increases will continue on a regular basis. This is when the company will refocus its efforts in order to improve its overall bottom line numbers. As a result, Cisco has been going through a similar situation by trying to redefine itself in areas that are seeing declining customer demand.
A Tale of Two Viewpoints on Cisco
If investors are listening to Wall Street analysts, it appears as if the company has been able to make the adjustments to the changes that have taken place. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the total number of analysts that are optimistic on the stock, with 36 rating the company as a strong buy or buy. While the total number of analysts that are bearish or neutral on the company is 20. This is important, because it shows how the majority of analysts are overly optimistic on the stock. As a result this could be an indication that the majority of successful investors have already purchased the company and may be in the process of taking their profits.
Moreover, the mainstream press is continuing to claim that Cisco is on the verge of taking advantage of new changes that are occurring in the way everyone is storing and retrieving information through cloud computing. This is when large amounts of data are stored on mainframe computers at remote locations versus having everyone place them in their devices. A good example of this can be seen in an article in Forbes:
Cisco Systems recently released a new cloud-based service, OnPlus, that helps its small-business partners provide network assessment, management and advisory services to their customers more easily. One of the major features of the new offering is that it allows value-added resellers (VARs) the ability to provide remote visibility of a customer’s network and attached devices. Cisco primarily competes with other network equipment and service providers like Juniper Network and Lucent Alcatel. We currently have a $21.21 price estimate for Cisco about 15% above the market price.
This is significant because it is showing how the mainstream press is taking the same kind of views as different analysts. Once this occurs, the odds increase that the company could be facing a number of different challenges when it comes to its earnings and future growth expectations.
This is the point that there could be some kind of negative surprise (which may cause the analysts to downgrade the stock) leading to a major reversal in prices. From a contrarian point of view, this is troubling as the current price is a reflection of these positive expectations. This increases the chances that the company could miss future earnings and revenue estimates.
Chambers Speaks Out
Despite the positive sentiment that is associated with the company, CEO John Chambers has said the firm is facing challenges associated with the culture inside the organization and the negative backlash from unsuccessful business ventures. Chambers commented that the firm is facing a number of issues going forward:
It is aspects of our operational execution that are not very strong . We have been slow to make decisions, we have had surprises where we should not, and we have lost the accountability that has been a hallmark of our ability to execute consistently for our customers and our shareholders. That is unacceptable. Today we face a simple truth: we have disappointed our investors and we have confused our employees. Bottom line, we have lost some of the credibility that is foundational to Cisco’s success – and we must earn it back. Our market is in transition, and our company is in transition. And the time is right to define this transition for ourselves and our industry. I understand this. It’s time for focus.
These comments are important, because they show Cisco is facing challenges from within. This means that the positive sentiments from analysts and the news media are nothing more than hype. Until the company is able to effectively focus on these issues. There will be continuing pressure on the stock. Over the course of time this means that earnings and revenues could come in below what many analyst are expecting. This raises the possibility for some kind of sell-off to occur.
Clearly Cisco Systems is facing a number of challenges when it comes to its operating environment and maintaining continuing growth. To be successful, the company will need to change from within, which will be time consuming and difficult. This means that the analysts’ estimates and positive news articles promoting the stock are ignoring these key factors. Once this occurs, the odds increase that Cisco could have some kind of negative earnings surprise.
Chassis, You Know Here:
A Chassis is a frame/housing for mounting the circuit components for Cisco Switches and Routers or any type of devices that provides power and a high-speed backplane. The frame also protects all of the vital internal equipment from dust, moisture, and tampering.
Making the Chassis to define even easier is;
A chassis is an enclosure; a container that holds things together... i.e. an egg carton holds eggs together inside. A chassis does the same thing; it holds the important things inside like wiring, power supplies etc.
General info of Backplane
Backplane is a circuit board with sockets that allows Supervisor engines Cards or modules to be inserted into these sockets and connect them to each other. Backplane is mounted on the Chassis.
Modules or line cards provide different types of interfaces, but the processing of packets is usually done in the Supervisor engine. Backplane is the medium for data flow between modules and Supervisor engines.
Additionally, most high-end switches off-load processing away from the supervisors, allowing line cards to switch traffic directly between ports on the same card without using any processing power or even touching the backplane. Naturally, this can't be done for all traffic, but basic layer-2 switching can usually be handled exclusively by the line card, and in many cases also more complex operations can be handled as well.
What is Line Card?
The line cards provide interfaces to the network.
A line card can terminate a line supporting voice POTS service, ISDN service, DSL service, or proprietary ones. Some line cards are capable of terminating more than one type of service.
Since an access network element is usually intended to interface many users (typically a few thousands) some exchanges have multiple line terminations per card. Similarly, it is common to have many line cards in the same network element.
People who work with Cisco network equipment need to be able to connect to the console port on their devices. In Windows, you can simply fire up HyperTerminal to get basic access to your devices. If you are using Linux, then you need to know how this can be done with an application called Minicom.
First, you are going to need a Cisco console cable, a Cisco device, and a computer. If your computer has a serial port, then you can use the standard console cable that comes with every Cisco device.
If you do not have a serial port (like most new laptops), then you need to purchase a USB to Serial adapter that supports Linux. Many of them do not require a driver in Linux. Make sure the item is plugged in at boot time & the system should find it. This device will allow you to use the standard Cisco cable which has a DB9 serial connector on one end & an RJ45 connector on the other.
You can easily install Minicom by using "System > Administration > Synaptic Package Manager". Search for "minicom" and choose to install the package. Click "Apply" and Minicom should be installed within a few seconds.
Find the name of your serial port
Next, you need to find out is which device your serial (including the USB adapter) ports are mapped to. The easiest way to do this is to connect the console cable to a running Cisco device. Now open up a Terminal using "Applications > Accessories > Terminal" and type this command:
dmesg | grep tty
The output will look something like one of these:
[ 0.788856] serial8250: ttyS0 at I/O 0x3f8 (irq = 4) is a 16550A
[ 0.789144] 00:08: ttyS0 at I/O 0x3f8 (irq = 4) is a 16550A
[94023.461242] usb 2-1: pl2303 converter now attached to ttyUSB0
[107561.131086] type=1503 audit(1260922689.994:33): operation="open" pid=27195 parent=27185 profile="/usr/sbin/cupsd" requested_mask="w::" denied_mask="w::" fsuid=0 ouid=0 name="/dev/ttyUSB0
Look in this output for words that contain "tty". In this case, it is "ttyS0". That means the name of the device that corresponds to your serial port is "ttyS0". The name of your device that corresponds to your USB port has a definition of name="/dev/ttyUSB0" (make sure it's plugged in). Now we are ready to configure Minicom to use this information.
Open a terminal using "Applications > Accessories > Terminal". Now type this command to enter the configuration menu of Minicom:
sudo minicom -s
Use the keyboard arrow keys to select the menu item labeled "Serial Port Setup" and then hit "Enter". This will open a window that looks similar to the one below:
Change your settings to match the ones in the picture above. Here is what I had to change:
- Change the line speed (press E) & change to "9600"
- Change the hardware flow control (press F) & change to "No"
- Change the serial device (press A) & change to "/dev/ttyS0"
- Or to use your USB port, change the serial device to "/dev/ttyUSB0"
- Be sure to use the device name that you learned with the grep output.
Once your screen looks like mine, you can hit "Escape" to go back to the main menu. Next, you need to select "Save setup as dfl" and hit "Enter" to save these settings to the default profile. Then select "Exit Minicom" to exit Minicom...
To find out if you have configured Minicom correctly, type this command in the terminal:
After entering your Ubuntu user password, you should be connected to your Cisco device.
Once inside, press Ctrl+A, to access minicom commands. Press 'Ctrl+A', then 'Z' to access help. Ctrl-A, then another letter, like 'X' & you will eXit. Help will show a list of available commands.
Note: You may want to delete the Minicom init string if you see a bunch of gibberish every time you connect to a device. To do this, enter Minicom configuration with:
sudo minicom -s
Then select "Modem and dialing". Press "A" to edit the Init string, and delete all characters so that it becomes empty. Make sure you save this to the default profile with "Save setup as dfl". You should no longer see gibberish when you connect to devices.
Create a desktop launcher
If you want to have quicker access to Minicom, you can create a desktop launcher.
- Right-click on the desktop and choose "Create launcher"
- Click on "Icon" and choose the picture you want to use
- Use the "Type" pull-down menu and select "Application in terminal"
- Create a name like "Cisco Console" in the field labeled "Name"
- Enter this command into the field labeled "Command"
- sudo minicom
- Hit "OK" and your desktop launcher is ready for you to use.
Our Self-Defending Network is an architectural solution designed for the evolving security landscape. Security is integrated everywhere and with the help of a lifecycle services approach, enterprises can design, implement, operate and optimize network platforms that defend critical business processes against attack and disruption, protect privacy, and support policy and regulatory compliance controls.
Using a Lifecycle approach to Services, Cisco and its partners provide a broad portfolio of Security Services that address all aspects of deploying, operating, and optimizing your network to help increase business value and return on investment
Unified Threat Management (UTM) is a comprehensive solution that has recently emerged in the Network security industry and since 2004, has gained widespread currency as a primary network gateway defense solution for organizations. In theory, it is the evolution of the traditional Firewall into an all-inclusive security product that has the ability to perform multiple security functions in one single appliance: network firewalling network intrusion prevention and anti-virus (AV), Gateway anti-spam VPN, content filtering, load balancing and on-appliance reporting.
Firewall / Cisco Firewall
A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. It is a device or set of devices configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt or proxy all (in and out) computer traffic between different Security gateway based upon a set of rules and other criteria.
Overview on Cisco 7971 IP Phone
Configurable buttons that provide access to various phone features
Allows you to adjust the angle of the phone base.
Awakens the touchscreen from power-save mode or disables it for cleaning: No color—Touchscreen available ready for input, Green flashing—Touchscreen disabled, Green steady—Touchscreen and backlight disabled
Typically auto-dials your voice message service (varies by service).
Opens/closes the Directories menu. Use it to view and dial from call logs (Missed, Received, and Placed) and a corporate directory.
Activates the Help menu.
Opens/closes the Settings menu. Use it to control touchscreen appearance and ring sounds.
Opens/closes the Services menu.
Controls the volume and other settings.
Toggles the speakerphone on or off.
Toggles the Mute feature on or off.
Toggles the headset on or off.
Allows you to scroll through menus and highlight items. Use in conjunction with softkeys to activate highlighted items. Also, while the phone is on-hook, press the Navigation button to access phone numbers from your Placed Calls log.
Allows you to dial phone numbers, enter letters, and choose menu items.
Activates a softkey. You can also activate a softkey by pressing the softkey label on the touchscreen.
Handset light strip
Indicates an incoming call and new voice message.
Shows phone features.
Getting Help on Your Phone
Your Cisco IP Phone provides a comprehensive online help system. Help topics appear on the touchscreen. See the table below for details.
If you want to...
- View the main menu press on your phone and wait for several seconds for the menu to display. If you are already in Help, press Main. Main menu topics include:
- About Your Cisco IP Phone—descriptive details about your phone
- How do I...?—procedures and information about common phone tasks
- Calling Features—descriptions and procedures about calling features
- Help—tips on using and accessing Help
- Learn about a button or softkey press , then quickly press a button or softkey.
- Learn about a menu item press "?", then quickly press the menu item on the touchscreen. Or, press "?" twice quickly with the menu item highlighted.
- Get help using Help press "?". After a second or two, press "?"again or choose Help from the Main Menu.
More Notes: If you wanna more info about Cisco Unified IP Phones, you can visit: http://www.router-switch.com/Price-cisco-ip-phones-voip_c4
Cisco 2900 Series Integrated Services Routers (ISR), designed to power the next phase of branch-office evolution, deliver highly secure connectivity with multiservice integration that can transform the workplace with a broad set of integrated services, rich-media support, and operational excellence.
As a type of router for small to medium enterprise with high performance, Cisco 2900 series ISRs offer embedded hardware encryption acceleration, voice- and video-capable digital signal processor (DSP) slots, optional firewall, intrusion prevention, call processing, voicemail, and application services. In addition, the platforms support the industries widest range of wired and wireless connectivity options such as T1/E1, XDSL, copper and fiber GE.
More Cisco 2900 Series support follow here:
High availability and increased business uptime through Cisco IOS Software, hardware redundancy, and failover capabilities.
Modular support for the broadest set of Cisco network and security services, as well as customizable "on demand" virtual services.
Video-ready architecture supports rich media unified communications capabilities.
Defends against malicious attacks and threats to data, voice, video and mobility.
High speed wireless access enables employees to be more productive when they are away from their desks.
Give remote staff and teleworkers secure access to company assets over a highly secure connection.
Cisco 2900 Series Integrated Services Routers offer a range of features, including:
High-performance, nonstop connectivity with integrated services enables deployment in high-speed WAN environments
Modular design delivers optimal service flexibility
Available enhanced Ether Switch modules enable integrated switching capabilities
Innovative Services-Ready Engine (SRE) enables deployment of services on demand
3G backup WAN access to support business continuity
Support for Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express enables secure collaboration for up to 150 users
Optional integrated high-speed 802.11n wireless access point supports secure mobility
Integrated network security defends against malicious attacks and threats to data, voice, video, and mobility
VPN support enables secure collaborative communications with Group Encrypted Transport VPN (GETVPN), Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN), or Enhanced Easy VPN
Enhanced redundancy, including diagnostics and backup power supplies increase fault tolerance and business uptime
Operational simplicity, energy efficient design, and Green credentials deliver low total cost of ownership
Cisco 2900 Series Models:
There are four models of Cisco 2900 router: Cisco 2901, Cisco 2911, Cisco 2921, and Cisco 2951. And the reflection from market we are clear that models of Cisco 2900 series are hot required by Cisco customers, such as Cisco 2951/K9, Cisco 2911/K9, Cisco 2921/K9, Cisco 2901/K9…
Take Cisco 2911 as an example; check its features in detail:
3 integrated 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports (RJ-45 only)
1 service module slot
4 enhanced high-speed WAN interface card slots
2 onboard digital signal processor (DSP) slots
1 Internal Service Module slot for application services
Fully integrated power distribution to modules supporting 802.3af Power over Ethernet (PoE) and Cisco Enhanced PoE
Embedded hardware-accelerated VPN encryption for secure connectivity and collaborative communications Integrated threat control using Cisco IOS Firewall, Cisco IOS Zone-Based Firewall, Cisco IOS IPS, and Cisco IOS Content Filtering
Identity management using authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) and public key infrastructure
High-density-packet voice DSP module, optimized for voice and video support
Standards-certified VoiceXML browser services
Cisco Unified Border Element capabilities
Cisco Unity Express voicemail support
Support for Cisco Communications Manager Express and Survivable Remote Site Telephony
Overall, the Cisco 2900 Series offers unparalleled total cost of ownership savings and network agility through the intelligent integration of security, wireless, unified communications, and application services.