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Cisco’s Data Center Architecture

April 3 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #IT, #Technology, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Originally, most of the traffic data center network architects designed around was client-to-server communication or what we call “north-south.” With client-to-server traffic being the most dominant, network engineers/architects primarily built data centers based on the traditional Core/Aggregation/Access layer design, as seen in Figure1, and the Collapsed Core/Aggregation design, as seen in Figure2.

Figure1. Cisco Three-Tier Network Design

Figure2. Collapsed Core/Aggregation Network Design

In the three-tier and Collapsed Core designs, the architecture is set up for allowing optimal traffic flow for clients accessing servers in the data center, and the return traffic and links between the tiers are set for optimal oversubscription ratios to deal with traffic coming in to and out of the data center. As the increase in link speeds and virtualization became more prevalent, network engineers looked for a way to use all links in between any tiers and hide spanning tree from blocking certain links, as shown in Figure3. To do this in the data center, the Nexus product line introduced virtual Port Channel (vPC). vPC enables two switches to look like one, from a Layer 2 perspective, allowing for all links to be active between tiers, as seen in Figure4.

Figure3. Spanning Tree between Tiers

Figure4. Virtual Port Channel (vPC)

In the latest trends in the data center, the traffic patterns have shifted to virtualization and new application architectures. This new traffic trend is called “east to west,” which means the majority of the traffic and bandwidth being used is actually between nodes within the data center, such as when motioning a virtual machine from one node to another or application clustering.

This topology is a spine-leaf, as seen in Figure5. Spine-leaf has several desirable characteristics that play into the hands of engineers who need to optimize east-west traffic.

Figure5. Spine-Leaf Network Topology

Just to name a few benefits, a spine-leaf design scales horizontally through the addition of spine switches which add availability and bandwidth, which a spanning tree network cannot do. Spine-leaf also uses routing with equal-cost multipathing to allow for all links to be active with higher availability during link failures. With these characteristics, spine-leaf has become the de facto architecture of network engineers and architects for their next wave of data center architectures.

Describe the Cisco Nexus Product Family

The Cisco Nexus product family is a key component of the Cisco unified data center architecture, which is the Unified Fabric. The objective of the Unified Fabric is to build highly available, highly secure network fabrics.

Using the Cisco Nexus products, you can build end-to-end data center designs based on three-tier architecture or based on spine-leaf architecture. Cisco Nexus Product line offers high-density 10G, 40G, and 100G ports as well.

Modern data center designs need the following properties:

  • Effective use of available bandwidth in designs where multiple links exist between the source and destination and one path is active and the other is blocked by spanning tree, or the design is limiting you to use Active/Standby NIC teaming. This is addressed today using Layer 2 multipathing technologies such as FabricPath and virtual Port Channels (vPC).
  • Computing resources must be optimized, which happens by building a computing fabric and dealing with CPU and memory as resources that are utilized when needed. Doing capacity planning for all the workloads and identifying candidates to be virtualized help reduce the number of compute nodes in the data center.
  • Using the concept of a service profile and booting from a SAN in the Cisco Unified Computing system will reduce the time to instantiate new servers. This makes it easy to build and tear down test and development environments.
  • Power and cooling are key problems in the data center today. Ways to address them include using Unified Fabric (converged SAN and LAN), using Cisco virtual interface cards, and using technologies such as VM-FEX and Adapter-FEX. Rather than using, for example, eight 10G links, you can use two 40G links, and so on. Reducing cabling creates efficient airflow, which in turn reduces cooling requirements.
  • The concept of hybrid clouds can benefit your organization. Hybrid clouds extend your existing data center to public clouds as needed, with consistent network and security policies. Cisco is helping customers utilize this concept using CliQr/Cisco CloudCenter.
  • Improved reliability during software updates, configuration changes, or adding components to the data center environment, which should happen with minimum disruption.
  • Hosts, especially virtual hosts, must move without the need to change the topology or require an address change.

The following Figure shows the different product types available at the time this chapter was written.

Cisco Nexus Product Family

NOTE: Cisco is always innovating and creating new modules/switches. Therefore, while studying for your exam, it is always a good idea to check Cisco.com/go/nexus to verify new modules/switches and their associated features.

Info from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2762085&seqNum=2

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How to Stack Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series Switches?

March 20 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Technology, #Cisco Modules - Cisco Cables - Cisco Memory

Stacking Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series Switches is often asked by Cisco users. When we talk about the Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR stacking, we need to know Cisco FlexStack-Extended and FlexStack-Plus technology. What’s the FlexStack-Extended and FlexStack-Plus technology? What benefits can we get from this tech? And how to stack Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR? We will share the typical example of Stacking Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series Switches in this article.

  1. Cisco FlexStack-Extended and FlexStack-Plus technology allows stacked installation of Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series Switches within the same wiring closet, across wiring closets on different floors of a building, or across different buildings in a campus, with a single point of management that reduces IT management overhead.
  2. The Cisco Catalyst 2960-X FlexStack-Plus Stack Module provides high-bandwidth stacking capability over short distances to simplify management and improve resiliency.
  3. The Cisco Catalyst 2960-X FlexStack-Extended Stack Module–Hybrid provides investment protection for Cisco Catalyst 2960-X and 2960-XR Series Switches that are already stacked and installed with FlexStack-Plus modules.

These modules act as interconnects between FlexStack-Plus and FlexStack-Extended stacked switches.

The FlexStack-Extended and FlexStack-Plus modules enable stacking within and across wiring closets. Up to eight Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series Switches can be stacked, with a single management and control plane. All management tasks, such as configuration, Cisco IOS Software upgrades, and troubleshooting, can be performed for all stacked switches from a single point of management through a command line or a simple graphical interface with Cisco Catalyst Configuration Professional.

The FlexStack-Plus and FlexStack-Extended modules are simple-to-install plug-and-play modules, with no preset configuration requirements. They simplify troubleshooting of multiple switches spread over large areas of the campus.

The FlexStack-Extended module uses the same rules for stack master election as FlexStack-Plus switches. These modules can be inserted into the stack module slot at the rear of the Cisco Catalyst 2960-X and 2960-XR Series Switches. Up to eight switches can be stacked in a ring topology using the FlexStack-Plus or FlexStack-Extended modules.

Learn more: FlexStack vs. FlexStack-Plus

C2960X-STACK vs. C2960X-FIBER-STK vs. C2960X-HYBRID-STK

Stack Module Slot Location

How to Stack Cisco Catalyst 2960-X or 2960-XR Series Switches?

●   Stack modules are plug and play; no configuration is required to bring up the stack.

Command: “show inventory” to see the modules inserted:

switch#show inventory

NAME: "3", DESCR: "WS-C2960XR-48TD-I"

PID: WS-C2960XR-48TD-I , VID: V01  , SN: FOC1720Y3WK

-----Output omitted-----------------------

NAME: "Switch 1 - FlexStackPlus Module", DESCR: "Stacking Module"

PID: C2960X-HYBRID-STK , VID: V01  , SN: FDO211827QG

The ports of the modules are in a stack port configuration by default.

Command:  “show switch hstack-ports” to ensure that the ports are stack ports.

Example: On the FlexStack-Extended fiber module:

The ports of the modules are in a stack port configuration by default.

Command:  “show switch hstack-ports” to ensure that the ports are stack ports.

Example: On the FlexStack-Extended fiber module:

Example: On the FlexStack-Extended hybrid module:

Note: The fiber port of the module does not show up with this command.

● When connecting the FlexStack-Extended hybrid module to FlexStack-Plus modules, the stack bandwidth of the switch with the FlexStack-Plus module should be manually configured to 10 Gbps

Command: “switch stack port-speed 10G” to set the stacking bandwidth to 40 Gbps:

Example: switch(config)#switch stack port-speed 10

Command: ‘show switch stack-ring  speed’

Example: switch#show switch stack-ring  speed

Stack Ring Speed        : 10G

Stack Ring Configuration: Half

Stack Ring Protocol     : FlexStack

● Once the stack cables (fiber or FlexStack-Plus cables) are connected to the switches to stack them:

Command: “show switch” to see all switches in the stack. The master is indicated with an asterisk (*).

switch#show switch

Switch/Stack Mac Address : d0c7.896b.9480

                                H/W   Current

Role   Mac Address     Priority Version  State

----------------------------------------------------------

 2       Member d0c7.aaaa.xxxx     1      4       Ready

*3       Master d0c7.bbbb.yyyy     1      4       Ready

Command: “show switch stack-ports” to see the status of the stack ports.

Example: switch#show switch stack-ports

 Switch #    Port 1       Port 2

  --------    ------       ------

    2          Down          Ok

    3          Down          Ok

Ok: Port status up

Down: Port status down

Note: When adding a switch to an existing stack, power off the new switch, connect the stack cables, and then power on the new switch. This will prevent any downtime in the existing stack.

How to Pick a Stack Module

● If the switches in the stack are less than 3 m (10 ft) apart or high stacking bandwidth is a requirement, the C2960X STACK module would be best suited for stacking

● If the stack switches are spread across wiring closets on different floors of a building or across multiple buildings in a campus (switches are more than 3 m [10 ft] apart), the C2960X-FIBER-STK module would be best suited

● If the stack is a mix of switches in the same wiring closet and switches spread across wiring closets, the stack modules will be a mix of C2960X STACK, C2960X-FIBER-STK, and C2960X-HYBRID-STK

Points to Remember

● Fast convergence is not supported on stack switches with FlexStack-Extended ports

● The fiber stack ports will support 10-Gbps transceivers only. Refer to the list of supported 10-Gbps transceivers mentioned earlier

● The FlexStack-Extended modules support up to 40-Gbps stack bandwidth over longer distances

● The FlexStack-Plus module supports up to 80-Gbps stack bandwidth over short distances

● When adding a new switch to an existing stack, power off the new switch and then connect the stack cables. This is to prevent reload of the existing stack and stack master reelection

● To use FlexStack-Extended modules, all switches in the stack require upgrade to Cisco IOS Software Release 15.2(6)E or later

Reference from https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/catalyst-2960-x-series-switches/white-paper-c11-739615.html

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Why 25G Transceiver Choices?

March 14 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Transceiver Modules, #Data Center, #Cisco Modules & Cards, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #IT, #Technology

25G Speeds Up Data Centers and Campus Backbones NOW. With the massive increase in demand for data, equipment providers are responding with 25Gbps edge devices that require more bandwidth than can be provided on a traditional 10Gbps interface.

Whether it’s a server or a campus backbone, high speed data needs to be delivered cost-effectively in a small and low-power package.

In these bandwidth-intensive applications, the choice to go with 25G is clear. To get the same or better bandwidth, the number of 10G interfaces must be 3x (6x for redundancy) or the application needs to move to the larger, more expensive and power-hungry 40G QSFP.

SFP28: For 25G the dominant form factor is SFP28. The SFP28 standard relies on the 10G SFP+ (Small Form Factor Pluggable) standard for mechanical specifications, and the electrical specifications have been improved from one 10Gbps lane that operates at 10.312Gbps to one 28Gbps lane that operates at 25Gbps + error correction. 25G transceivers can be plugged into SFP+ sockets and 10G transceivers can be plugged into SFP28 sockets because they have the same electrical and mechanical pin-out, however the associated host needs to have the software support for associated devices.

Cisco’s 25G transceiver choices include 25G Copper DAC (Direct Attached Cables), 25G AOC (Active Optical Cables) and 25G SR-S (Short Reach) transceivers.

These 25G devices are plugged into Cisco’s data center, campus and service provider switches and routers to provide high speed 25Gbps connectivity. See Cisco’s 25G compatibility matrix for currently supported devices .

Why DAC?

25G DACs are generally used in data center applications and provide the lowest cost fixed length interconnect for TOR (Top of Rack) switches to high-performance servers.  Depending upon the bandwidth and distance, DACs can be either passive or active and are generally based on Twin-AX cable.  For 25G, DACs can generally operate up to 5 meters without active components in the data path. Up to 2 meters, no FEC (Forward Error Correction) is needed. For 3 meters FC-FEC (Fire Code Forward Error Correction) is needed, and for 5 meters RS-FEC (Reed Solomon Forward Error Correction) is needed to correct errors.  Generally, at 25Gbps beyond 5 meters, active components are needed in the data path to amplify and correct the signal.  These components drive up cost which causes network designers to consider optical interfaces.

Why AOC?

25G AOCs also provide a cost effect solution for those same data center applications that require longer distances than 5m. Generally, AOCs are provided in standard lengths of 1m, 2m, 3m, 5m and 10m. However, they are usually limited to about 25 meters because of inventory stock and slack storage issues. Often a data center will be wired with only AOCs for consistency reasons, instead of a combination of AOCs and DACs.

Why SR?

25G-SR is used with standard OM3 or OM4 multimode fiber and is suitable for:

• Data centers that require up 100 meters over OM4 fiber or 70 meters over OM3 fiber for interconnect between TOR switches and leaf or spine switches.

• Breakout configurations in conjunction with 100G-SR4 transceivers where the distances are less than 100 meters for OM4 fiber or 70 meters for OM3 fiber.

• Campus backbones, where the distances between distribution and aggregation switches are less than 100 meters for OM4 fiber or 70 meters for OM3 fiber.

Learn more about how Cisco’s 25G transceiver products are transforming the industry here

Original article from https://blogs.cisco.com/sp/too-slow-25g-speeds-up-data-centers-and-campus-backbones

 

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The Latest Updated: SFP Modules for Cisco Catalyst 2960-X Series Switches

January 12 2018 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Modules & Cards, #Networking

We are so familiar with the hot Catalyst 2960-X series, and what are the SFP Transceiver Models for 2960 X Series? Check the table below about the latest SFP models for 2960 X Series.

Catalyst 2960 X Series

Network Device

Transceiver Model

Minimum Software Release Required

DOM Support

Software Release

WS-C2960X-24TS-LL
WS-C2960X-48TS-LL

GLC-LH-SMD
GLC-SX-MMD
GLC-EX-SMD1
GLC-T
GLC-TE
GLC-LH-SM
GLC-SX-MM
GLC-GE-100FX

15.0(2)EX

15.0(2)EX

WS-C2960X-24PSQ-L

GLC-BX-D
GLC-BX-U
GLC-LH-SMD
GLC-SX-MMD
GLC-EX-SMD1
GLC-ZX-SMD
GLC-T
GLC-TE
GLC-ZX-SM
GLC-LH-SM
GLC-SX-MM

15.0(2)EX

15.0(2)EX

WS-C2960X-24PS-L
WS-C2960X-24TS-L
WS-C2960X-48TS-L
WS-C2960X-48LPS-L
WS-C2960X-48FPS-L
WS-C2960X-24TD-L
WS-C2960X-24PD-L
WS-C2960X-48TD-L
WS-C2960X-48LPD-L
WS-C2960X-48FPD-L

GLC-BX-D
GLC-BX-U
GLC-LH-SMD
GLC-SX-MMD
GLC-EX-SMD1
GLC-ZX-SMD
GLC-T
GLC-TE
GLC-ZX-SM
GLC-LH-SM
GLC-SX-MM
CWDM-SFP
GLC-GE-100FX

15.0(2)EX

15.0(2)EX

 

SFP Transceivers

Model Number

Transceiver Description

GLC-T=

1000BASE-T SFP transceiver module for Category 5 copper wire, RJ-45 connector

GLC-TE=

1000BASE-T SFP transceiver module for Category 5 copper wire, RJ-45 connector, Extended Temperature

GLC-SX-MM=

1000BASE-SX SFP transceiver module for MMF, 850-nm wavelength, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-LH-SM=

1000BASE-LX/LH SFP transceiver module for MMF and SMF, 1300-nm wavelength, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-ZX-SM=

1000BASE-ZX SFP transceiver module for SMF, 1550-nm wavelength, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-BX-D=

1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1490-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength, single LC/PC connector

GLC-BX-U=

1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1310-nm TX/1490-nm RX wavelength, single LC/PC connector

GLC-BX40-D-I

1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1550-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength, single LC/PC connector

GLC-BX40-U-I

1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1310-nm TX/1550-nm RX wavelength, single LC/PC connector

GLC-BX80-D-I

1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1570-nm TX/1490-nm RX wavelength, single LC/PC connector

GLC-BX80-U-I

1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1490-nm TX/1570-nm RX wavelength, single LC/PC connector

GLC-BX40-DA-I

1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1490-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength, single LC/PC connector

GLC-2BX-D=

Dual-channel 1000BASE-BX10 SFP module for single-strand SMF, 1490-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength, two single LC/PC connectors

SFP-GE-S=

1000BASE-SX SFP transceiver module for MMF, 850-nm wavelength, extended operating temperature range and DOM support, dual LC/PC connector

SFP-GE-L=

1000BASE-LX/LH SFP transceiver module for MMF and SMF, 1300-nm wavelength, extended operating temperature range and DOM support, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-EX-SMD=

1000BASE-EX SFP transceiver module for SMF, 1310-nm wavelength, extended operating temperature range and DOM support, dual LC/PC connector

SFP-GE-Z=

1000BASE-ZX SFP transceiver module for SMF, 1550-nm wavelength, extended operating temperature range and DOM support, dual LC/PC connector

SFP-GE-T=

1000BASE-T SFP transceiver module for Category 5 copper wire, extended operating temperature range, RJ-45 connector

GLC-SX-MM-RGD

1000BASE-SX SFP transceiver module for MMF, 850-nm wavelength, industrial Ethernet, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-LX-SM-RGD

1000BASE-LX/LH SFP transceiver module for MMF and SMF, 1300-nm wavelength, industrial Ethernet, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-ZX-SM-RGD

1000BASE-ZX SFP transceiver module for SMF, 1550-nm wavelength, industrial Ethernet, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-SX-MMD=

1000BASE-SX SFP transceiver module for MMF, 850-nm wavelength, extended operating temperature range and DOM support, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-LH-SMD=

1000BASE-LX/LH SFP transceiver module for MMF and SMF, 1300-nm wavelength, extended operating temperature range and DOM support, dual LC/PC connector

GLC-ZX-SMD=

1000BASE-ZX SFP transceiver module for SMF, 1550-nm wavelength, dual LC/PC connector

SFP-GPON-B

Gigabit passive optical network (GPON) Class B+ SFP OLT transceiver module, 1490-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength

SFP-GPON-B-I

Gigabit passive optical network (GPON) Class B+ SFP OLT transceiver module, 1490-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength, industrial temperature range

SFP-GPON-C

Gigabit passive optical network (GPON) Class C+ SFP OLT transceiver module, 1490-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength

SFP-GPON-C-I

Gigabit passive optical network (GPON) Class C+ SFP OLT transceiver module, 1490-nm TX/1310-nm RX wavelength, industrial temperature range

1CPN 10-2624-01 or later only.

The full data sheet of Cisco Gigabit Ethernet Transceiver Modules Compatibility Matrix you can visit here:

https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/interfaces_modules/transceiver_modules/compatibility/matrix/GE_Tx_Matrix.html

 

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Cisco UPOE, Benefits and Solutions

December 18 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Technology - IT News, #IT, #Technology

Cisco Universal Power over Ethernet (UPOE) extends the IEEE Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+) standard to double the power per port to 60 watts.

Cisco UPOE can extend resilient network power to a broad range of devices, including virtual desktop terminals, IP turrets, compact switches, building management gateways, LED lights, wireless access points, and IP phones.

Cisco UPOE is currently available on the Cisco Catalyst 4500E and Cisco Catalyst 3850 platforms.

UPoE Architecture

As defined in IEEE 802.3af and IEEE 802.3at, PoE delivers electrical power over two pairs out of the four twisted pairs of cable in Class D (also known as Cat5e) or better, cabling as specified in ISO/IEC 11801:1995. A PSE uses only signal pairs, the pairs 1, 2 and 3, 6, to transport power from the PSE to the PD and leaves the spare pairs, the pairs 4, 5 and 7, 8, idle. This architecture can deliver up to 30W per port.

UPOE uses the same cabling standard as PoE. Instead of delivering power over two twisted pairs, it provides the capability to source up to 60W of power by using all the four pairs of standard Ethernet cabling (Cat5e or better).

The architecture for a 4-pair system is pretty straightforward; it is an extension of the 2-pair design. The 2-pair system uses one PSE controller to power the PD through the signal pairs of the cable. In the new 4-pair system two PSE controllers will be used to power both the signal pairs and the spare pairs. Figure 6 shows the UPOE architecture.

UPoE Operation

PoE/PoE Plus/UPOE comparison

 

PoE

PoE Plus

UPOE

Minimum cable type

Cat5e

Cat5e

Cat5e

IEEE standard definition

802.3af

802.3at

Cisco proprietary

Maximum power per PSE port

15.4W

30W

60W

Maximum power to PD

12.95W

25.5W

51W

Twisted pair used

2-pair

2-pair

4-pair

Available on Cisco Catalyst 4500E Series Switches, Cisco UPOE can:

  • Lower capital expenditures by eliminating wall circuits for endpoints
  • Reduce operating expenses by consolidating distributed uninterruptible power supply (UPS) deployments
  • Reduce deployment time through interoperability testing of devices
  • Reduce energy expenditure through Cisco EnergyWise
  • Extend intelligent load shedding capabilities to the devices connected to the switch

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Updated-5 Tips for Choosing a Next-Generation Firewall/NGFW

November 28 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #IT, #Technology

Not sure this is the firewall for you? Read the 5 tips for Choosing a Next-Generation Firewall today.

If you decide to invest in a threat-focused Next-Generation Firewall (NGFW), you can ask like this: If it delivers…

1. Integrated Threat Defense

Get actionable, multi-layered protection.

Today’s multi-vector and persistent threats slip through gaps in protection and evade detection. A threat-focused NGFW provides best-in-class security technologies that work together across the network and endpoints and are managed through a central console. Built on a comprehensive stateful ­firewall foundation, threat-focused NGFW technologies should include:

  • Next-Generation IPS
  • Advanced Malware Protection
  • Application Visibility and Control
  • Reputation-based URL filtering
  • Application-level VPN
  • With integrated threat and advanced malware protection that continuously correlates threat intelligence across security layers, you can identify and protect against sophisticated attacks.

 

2. Actionable Indicators of Compromise

Accelerate malware detection to mitigate risk.

The current industry standard time to detect a threat is between 100 to 200 days; that’s far too long. An NGFW should provide actionable indicators of compromise (IoCs) that:

  • Correlate network and endpoint security intelligence
  • Provide highly accurate visibility into suspect and malicious ­le and host behavior
  • Prioritize infected hosts for rapid remediation
  • Actionable IoCs let you see malware activity on hosts and endpoints, understand the impact, and quickly contain and remediate.

 

3. Comprehensive Network Visibility

Increase security effectiveness with a holistic view.

You can’t protect what you can’t see. You need to monitor what’s happening on your network at all times. An NGFW should provide full contextual awareness of:

  • Users, operating systems, and devices
  • Communications between virtual machines
  • Threats and vulnerabilities
  • Applications and website access
  • File transfers, and more
  • This level of insight helps you identify and address security gaps and fine-tune policies so as to reduce the number of significant events requiring additional action.

 

4. Reduced Complexity and Costs

Unify security layers and automate for efficiencies.

A combination of advanced threats and a shortage of skilled IT security professionals is stretching IT departments to the max. Look for an NGFW that:

  • Consolidates multiple layers of defenses on a single platform
  • Delivers consistent and robust security at scale
  • Automates routine security tasks like impact assessment, policy tuning, and user identi­fication
  • By reducing complexity and costs your team is freed up to focus on events that matter most.

 

5. Integration with Third-Party Solutions

Maximize existing security investments.

You need to be able to share intelligence and better leverage existing security technologies to consolidate and streamline response. Look for an NGFW that is open and integrates smoothly with an ecosystem of third-party security solutions like:

  • Vulnerability management systems
  • Network visualization and SIEM systems
  • Workflow remediation and ticketing systems
  • Network access control (NAC), and more
  • Third-party solution integration reduces your IT burden and total cost of ownership (TCO) and strengthens multi-layered protection.

Attacks will continue to evolve as will the IT environment you need to protect. Make sure the NGFW you select provides tightly integrated, multi-layered threat protection. By sharing context and intelligence among security functions you accelerate threat detection and response across your organization, and get the most from your investments.

The tips from https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/security/next-gen-firewall.pdf

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Cisco 1000 Series ISRs-Digital Ready, Fixed-platform

November 16 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Routers, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco News

Cisco 1000 Series ISRs, Cisco’s newest fixed, high-performance routers, small yet powerful, are easy to deploy and manage with advanced capabilities.

They provide highly secure broadband, Metro Ethernet, and wireless LAN connectivity. 

The Cisco 1000 Series ISR platform with a small form factor is best suited for small and midsize businesses, enterprise branches, and as customer premises equipment in managed services environments.

  1. The routers come in two models: an 8-LAN-port option and a 4-LAN-port option.
  2.  

  3. They have high performance with Gigabit Ethernet packet forwarding capabilities. The multicore architecture has separate cores for data plane and control plane.
  4. The 1000 Series ISRs support Power over Ethernet (PoE) and PoE+ to power branch devices such as IP phones and cameras.
  5. They are easy to deploy with zero-touch provisioning using Plug-and-Play capability. There are multiple LAN, WLAN, WAN, and LTE combinations to choose from, depending on your branch needs.
  6. The 1000 Series can be used in ATMs, retail stores, and kiosks, as well as for various other purposes.

The Cisco 1000 Series Integrated Services Routers (ISRs) are the latest high end fixed routing ISRs. They are based on Cisco IOS® XE Software, with great performance at a low price point, perfect for small and midsize businesses, for enterprise branches, and as Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) in managed services environments. They address increased mobility demands with LTE Advanced and 802.11ac (Wave 2) Wi-Fi.

The key difference between the 1000 Series ISRs and the 800 Series routers

More simple questions and answers help you know more about the new 1000 Series ISRs

Q: Can I continue to order the 800 Series routers after the 1000 Series ISRs are orderable?

A: Yes, the 800 Series routers are not at end of sale or end of life. You can continue to order the 800 Series after the 1000 Series ISRs are orderable.

 

Q: What are the different models of the 1000 Series ISRs?

A: The 1000 Series ISRs have two primary models, with 8 LAN ports (C1100-8P) and 4 LAN ports (C1100-4P). Both come with varied combinations of WAN interfaces, LTE, and Wi-Fi options.

 

Q: What are the different SKUs/product IDs for the 1000 Series?

A: Multiple SKUs are available for the 8-port and 4-port models that offer a combination of WAN links (Gigabit Ethernet, DSL, and LTE) and wireless LAN capabilities. Please refer to the product ID table in the data sheet for the full list.

 

Q: What kind of CPU is used in the 1000 Series ISRs?

A: The naming convention for the 1000 Series ISR product IDs is given in the table below.

Q: What is the naming convention for the 1000 Series ISR product IDs?

A: The CPU in the 1000 Series ISRs is a 4-core ARM processor with separate cores used for data plane, data plane scheduler, and control plane. The fourth core is currently not used. There is a different crypto engine for cryptographic operations.

 

Q: What is the size of the DRAM on the 1000 Series ISR models? How much flash is available on the device?

A: Both the 4-LAN-port and 8-LAN-port 1000 Series ISRs come with 4 GB of RAM and 4 GB of flash storage by default.

 

Q: Are the 1000 Series ISRs fanless routers?

A: Yes, the 1000 Series ISRs are fanless, fixed branch routers with multiple WAN link options.

 

Q: What Cisco IOS Software version is supported on the 1000 Series ISRs?

A: The 1000 Series ISRs are based on Cisco IOS XE Software and will support the Cisco IOS XE 16.6.1 Universal image.

 

Licensing

Q: What is the license packaging model for the 1000 Series?

A: The licensing model for the 1000 Series ISRs uses the IP Base, App, and Security licenses. The 1000 Series comes with the IP Base license by default. For additional security features and Application Experience features, the Security and App licenses, respectively, have to be purchased.

Q: Is there a performance license for the 1000 Series ISRs?

A: A performance license is needed only for encrypted traffic of over 50 Mbps. With the IP Base and Security licenses, you can get up to 50 Mbps of IPsec throughput. On the 4-LAN-port model, you can purchase an IPsec Performance license for a 100-Mbps upgrade, and on the 8-LAN-port model, you can purchase an IPsec Performance license for a 200-Mbps upgrade.

 

Q: What features are part of the IP Base, App and Security licenses?

A: Please refer to the software licensing document for the 1000 Series ISRs, which will list all the features that are part of the different licenses available.

 

Q: Is the software license Right-to-Use (RTU)?

A: Yes, all the software licenses on the 1000 Series are Right-to-Use and do not need a license file to be installed.

 

Q: Will the 1000 Series support Cisco ONE™ licensing, and what license features will it cover?

A: Yes, the 1000 Series ISRs support Cisco ONE licenses. The Cisco ONE license will include the IP Base, App, and Security licenses for the platform. The IPsec Performance license will have to be purchased separately.

 

Hardware features

Q: Is the 1000 Series PoE and PoE+ capable?

A: Yes, the 8-LAN-port model supports either 4 PoE ports or 2 PoE+ ports. The 4-LAN-port model supports either 2 PoE ports or 1 PoE+ port. When PoE or PoE+ is ordered, the default 66W power supply is replaced with a 125W power supply for the 8-port model and with a 115W power supply for the 4-port model.

More FAQ of 1000 Series ISRs you can read here: https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/routers/1000-series-integrated-services-routers-isr/q-and-a-c67-739639.pdf

https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/routers/1000-series-integrated-services-routers-isr/datasheet-c78-739512.pdf

More Cisco Router Topics you can visit here: http://blog.router-switch.com/category/reviews/cisco-routers/

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Cisco BE7000, Scalable Collaboration for Enterprises

November 7 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Technology - IT News, #IT, #Technology

Cisco Business Edition 7000 is an all-in-one, end-to-end collaboration solution designed for fast-growing enterprises.

Empower your employees to engage and innovate anywhere, on any device, any time, with industry-leading technology.

Cisco BE7000, Scalable Collaboration for Enterprises

  • Voice over IP phone system (VoIP): Comprehensive Unified Communications capabilities including voice and video calling, voicemail, messaging and presence, contact center and mobility options for every user.
  • Easy installation and management: It’s preloaded with all the essential collaboration applications you need, and simple to deploy and manage.  Consolidate your communications infrastructure costs and reduce maintenance overheads.
  • Flexible premises and hybrid cloud deployment: Deploy essential communications on-premises and add the latest meetings and messaging services from the Cisco Spark collaboration cloud.
  • Scalable design for future growth: It’s purpose-built for small and midsize businesses with the industry’s leading Cisco Unified Communications Manager. It grows with the pace of your business as you add new users or locations.

Cisco Unified Communications Solutions- Flexible, Affordable, Easy to deploy and Manage, and Scalable to Support business growth

Cisco Business Edition 6000S

Cisco Business Edition 6000

Cisco Business Edition 7000

Cisco Spark

Cisco Hosted Collaboration Solution

Great for small scale collaboration

Great for midsize collaboration

Great for large scale collaboration

Great for team productivity

Flexible, agile, efficient cloud collaboration

Small business phone system, mobility, messaging, routing, and security in a single server

Small to midsized phone system, mobility, messaging, contact center, and conferencing in a single server

Enterprise scale phone system, mobility, messaging, contact center, and conferencing in a modular, scale-out server solution

The Cisco Spark service is a complete collaboration-as-a-service (CaaS) offering that delivers unified messaging, meeting, and calling capabilities that are hosted by Cisco and sold by partners.

Voice, video, unified communications, contact center, mobility, and more as a service from Certified Cisco Partners

Cisco BE7000, a perfectly affordable, simple, and very cool packaged collaboration solution with zero maximum capacity limits on users, devices, locations and applications. 

Built with a modular and stackable design, BE7000 scales however customers need, whenever they want. Check it out!

 

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Cisco Business Edition 4000 Makes Your Communications More Simple

October 26 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Technology - IT News, #IT, #Technology

easy-to-use? cloud-managed? Yes, ideal for small to midsize businesses and supports up to 200 phones, the BE4000, simple, cloud-managed office communications, can help reduce your communications costs and is easy to set up and manage.

Cisco Business Edition 4000, this modern, cloud-managed IP phone system is optimized for small and midsize businesses with up to 200 phones.

Features

Support for the latest IP phones

Choose the right phone for the right situation. Business Edition 4000 supports a wide range of the latest Cisco IP Phone 7800 Series and 8800 Series phones.

Essential calling features

Never miss a call with Business Edition 4000. Make, receive, park, hold, and transfer calls. Access your voicemail. Create hunt groups. Join audio conferences. Route calls effectively with an auto-attendant.

Easy cloud management

Customized views for partners, IT administrators, and end-users give easy access to the key information you need. Intuitive menus make it simple to add new users and phones, turn on calling features, and set your personal preferences.

Security and privacy

All your system data is encrypted, and the Business Edition Management portal supports multi-tenancy, with the two-factor authentication required for admin login.

Investment protection

At the end of your plan, simply renew your Business Edition 4000 subscription. Or migrate to a complete Cisco Spark plan. Enhance return on your initial investment by reusing your Cisco IP phones.

How to deploy Business Edition 4000?

Talk with a Cisco partner to learn more and choose the best options for you.

  • Choose your plan

Our one-, three-, or five-year, pre-paid term-based licensing plans make investment planning easy.

  • Add your hardware

     

Choose the phone and interface card you need to connect to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

  • Preconfigure your solution

Your Cisco partner preconfigures your dial plan and calling features prior to shipment using our cloud-hosted management portal.

  • Deploy in less than a day

Your system automatically gets its configuration from the cloud and our partner completes the install.

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Cisco 4400 and 4300 Series ISRs, the Differences

October 19 2017 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Routers, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #IT

Cisco ISR 4000 series is the trend among the hardware routers. The popular 4000 Series

ISR models are users’ options. Why? You can read more about the The “Always On” Cisco ISR 4000 Will Replace the Popular Cisco 1900, 2900, and 3900 Series-Benefits of Migrating to Cisco 4000 Series Integrated Services Routers

The 4000 Series comes to five platforms: the 4451, 4431, 4351, 4331, 4321 and 4221 ISRs.

Learn more: ISR 4221, the New Cisco DNA-Ready Platform

Cisco 4000 Series: Technical Highlights and Comparison

The Cisco 4000 Series uses Cisco IOS XE Software, the same Linux-based OS found on the bigger ASR 1000 Series platforms. Cisco IOS XE retains the design and user interface of the Cisco IOS OS used by previous generation Cisco routers, yet allows the use of multi-core CPUs. This setup facilitates separation of the data and control planes and uses dedicated CPUs for services.

Because the services plane is separate from the data and control planes, the router can handle more and heavier services on a single platform, allowing an office to consolidate devices. Solutions such as Cisco Unified Border Element (CUBE), Cisco Unified Survivable Remote Site Telephony (SRST), or various routing services can be deployed more easily and efficiently on a single ISR. In addition, for many of the services, such as CUBE, the scalability is significantly greater without added costs per port. Performance also remains solid across most typical branch-office deployments, providing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)-like performance in a highly reliable platform.

X86-based embedded service containers offer dedicated virtualized computing resources that include CPU, disk storage, and memory for each service. An industry-standard hypervisor presents the underlying infrastructure to the application or service. This design offers better scaling and flexibility than a tightly coupled service. Deployment with zero footprint, security through fault isolation, and the flexibility to upgrade network services independently of the router software are other benefits.

And the Cisco 4400 and 4300 Series ISRs have a very similar user interface design.

The biggest difference to most users is that the 4400 Series supports dual power supplies, whereas the 4300 Series does not; this difference makes the Cisco 4451 and 4431 the preferred choices for organizations that cannot tolerate any downtime.

The 4400 and 4300 Series are both designed with the same base architecture as their close relative, the ASR 1000 Series, using distributed control and data plane resources.

The 4400 Series routers have a physical separation between control and data planes, using dedicated CPU sockets for each. The 4300 Series uses a single socket with multiple CPU cores, providing the distributed control plane, data plane, and service plane resources. This is, however, a difference most users will never be aware of.

Figure1 shows the Cisco 4400 Series architecture.

The abbreviations in the figure are as follows:

  1. FPGE: Front-panel Gigabit Ethernet. The Ethernet interfaces on the front panel.
  2. ISC: Internal services card. An internal module used for expanding the capabilities of the system. Commonly used for digital signal processor (DSP) modules.
  3. SM-X: Enhanced service module. A larger module type used mainly for Cisco UCS E-Series Server blades and high-density Ethernet switch modules. Some of the SM-X modules are compatible with the ISR G2 product line.
  4. NIM: Network interface module. Half the size of an SM-X, and generally used for WAN, voice, and lowdensity Ethernet interfaces. NIMs are not compatible with previous-generation ISRs.

Figure1. Cisco 4400 Series Architecture

The Cisco 4400 Series uses two multicore CPU complexes for the data plane (packet processing) and control and services planes. In Cisco IOS XE Software, classic Cisco IOS Software runs as a single daemon within a Linux OS, helping ensure control-plane protocol compatibility with all other Cisco routers. This setup is indicated as “Cisco IOS Software” in the figure. Additional system functions now run as additional, separate processes in the host OS environment. “ISR-WAAS” in the figure is an example of a typical virtualized service in a Cisco IOS XE Software service container. As with the previous ISR G2 routers, a multigigabit fabric supports direct intercommunication on Layer 2 between the Internal Services Card (ISC), Cisco SM-X EtherSwitch modules, and network interface modules (NIMs) without having to be routed through the host router data plane.

Figure2 shows the Cisco 4300 Series architecture, which is similar to the 4400 Series but does not include physical separation of the control and data planes. All functions are, however, exactly the same, with identical enduser experiences and feature support.

Figure2. Cisco 4300 Series Architecture

Individual Models in the Cisco 4000 Series

Figure3. Cisco 4451-X ISR

The Cisco 4451-X is suggested for migration from the existing Cisco 3925E and 3945E routers. It offers 1-Gbps performance, upgradable to 2 Gbps, in a 2-rack-unit (2RU) form factor with three NIM slots and two enhanced service module (SM-X) slots.

The 4451-X includes an option for built-in redundant power.

● 4-core processor (one control and three services processors)

● 10-core data plane

● Single or double-wide Cisco UCS E-Series support

● Up to 16-GB control and services memory

Figure4. Cisco 4431 ISR

The Cisco 4431 is suggested for migration from the existing Cisco 3925 and 3945 routers. It offers 500-Mbps performance, upgradable to 1 Gbps, in a 1RU form factor with three NIM slots. Like the 4451, the 4431 includes an option for built-in redundant power.

● 4-core processor (one control and three services processors)

● 6-core data plane

● Up to 16-GB control and services memory

Figure5. Cisco 4351 ISR

The Cisco 4351 is suggested for migration from existing Cisco 2951 routers. It offers 200-Mbps performance, upgradable to 400 Mbps, in a 2RU form factor with three NIM slots and two SM slots.

● 8-core CPU with four data-plane cores and four cores for control-plane and containerized services

● Single or double-wide Cisco UCS E-Series support, and up to 16-GB control and services memory

Figure6. Cisco 4331 ISR

The Cisco 4331 is suggested for migration from the existing Cisco 2911 and 2921 routers. It offers 100-Mbps performance, upgradable to 300 Mbps, in a 1RU form factor with two NIM slots and one SM slot.

● 8-core CPU with four data-plane cores and four cores for control-plane and containerized services

● Single-wide Cisco UCS E-Series support, and up to 16-GB control and services memory

Figure7. Cisco 4321

The Cisco 4321 is suggested for migration from the existing Cisco 2901 and 1941 routers. It offers 50-Mbps performance, upgradable to 100 Mbps, in a 1RU desktop form factor with two NIM slots and no SM slots.

  • 4-core CPU with two data-plane cores, one control-plane core, and one core dedicated for services
  • Up to 8-GB control and services memory

The Cisco 4000 Series is designed to help branch and remote offices do more with less. These routers provide higher bandwidth for heavy service combinations and greatly enhanced WAN management. They also introduce embedded X86-based virtual machines together with options for data center–class servers, and an unprecedented flexibility in upgrading.

All in all, the 4000 Series provides the branch office with less need for rack space; lower cost for maintenance, power, and cooling; faster rollout of new services; and less time spent by IT staff managing routers. 

Compare ISR 4000 Models

Get the Best Prices on Cisco ISR 4000 Models

Reference from https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/routers/4000-series-integrated-services-routers-isr/whitepaper_c11-732909.pdf

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