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Fat, Thin, and Fit APs in WLAN Network

December 20 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP, #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network

You should hear of the Fat, Thin, and Fit APs. What are they?

The terms thin and fat have been applied to WLAN access points (APs) in many different ways.

  • Some vendors use thin AP to refer to entry-level/residential-grade products with few advanced features, in comparison to fat APs rich with enterprise network features like VLAN tagging and SNMP-based management.
  • Some use thin AP to refer to products that can't be configured or used on their own, but instead are part of a WLAN switching system that governs both setup and operation. In this case, a fat AP is any stand-alone AP, no matter how extensive that AP's feature set.
  • Some use thin AP to refer to products that offload selected tasks to an upstream server -- for example, communicating with 802.1X Authentication Servers, generating encryption keys, acting as a VPN gateway, or re-routing traffic for cross-network mobility. In comparison, any of these tasks could be performed directly on a fat AP, without relying on an upstream server.

In the autonomous architecture, the WTPs (Wireless Termination Point) completely implement and terminate the 802.11 function so that frames on the wired LAN are 802.3 frames. Each WTP can be independently managed as a separate network entity on the network. The access point in such a network is often called a Fat AP.

FAT APs in Autonomous WLAN Network Architecture


During the initial stages of WLAN deployment, most APs were autonomous APs, and manageable as independent entities in the network. During the past few years, centralized architectures (discussed next) with ACs and WTPs have gained popularity. The primary advantage of the centralized architecture is that it provides network administrators with a structured and hierarchical mode of control for multiple WTPs in the enterprise.

Centralized Architecture

The centralized architecture is a hierarchical architecture that involves a WLAN controller that is responsible for configuration, control, and management of several WTPs. The WLAN controller is also known as the Access Controller (AC). The 802.11 function is split between the WTP and the AC. Because the WTPs in this model have a reduced function as compared to the autonomous architecture, they are also known as Thin APs. Some of the functions on the APs are variable, as discussed in the following section.

Thin APs in Centralized WLAN Network Architecture


Distributed Architecture

In the distributed architecture, the various WTPs can form distributed networks with other WTPs through wired or wireless connections. A mesh network of WTPs is one example of such an architecture. The WTPs in the mesh can be linked with 802.11 links or wired 802.3 links. This architecture is often used in municipal networks and other deployments where an outdoor component is involved. This article does not address the distributed architecture.

WTP Functions Fat, Thin, and Fit APs

To understand the autonomous and centralized architecture, it is useful to look at the functions performed by the APs. We start with the Fat APs, which form the core of the autonomous architecture, followed by the Thin APs, which were specified as part of the WLAN switch- or controller-based centralized architecture. The article will then outline the functions of a new variant called the Fit AP, an optimized version of the AP for centralized architectures.

Fat Access Points

Figure1 shows an example of an autonomous network with a fat access point. The AP is an addressable node in the network with its own IP address on its interfaces. It can forward traffic between the wired and wireless interfaces. It can also have more than one wired interface and can forward traffic between the wired interfaces similar to a Layer 2 or Layer 3 switch. Connectivity to the wired enterprise can be through a Layer 2 or Layer 3 network.

It is important to understand that there is no backhauling of traffic from the Fat AP to another device through tunnels. This aspect is important and is addressed when discussing the other AP types. In addition, Fat APs can provide router-like functions such as the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server capabilities.

Management of the AP is done through a protocol such as the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) or the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for Web-based management and a Command-Line Interface (CLI). To manage multiple APs, the network manager has to connect to each AP through one of these management schemes. Each AP shows up on the network map as a separate node. Any aggregation of the nodes for management and control has to be done at the Network Management System (NMS) level, which involves development of an NMS application.

Fat APs also have enhanced capabilities such as Access Control Lists (ACLs), which permit filtering of traffic for specific WLAN clients. Another significant capability of these devices is configuration and enforcement of Quality of Service (QoS)-related functions. For example, traffic from specific mobile stations might need to have a higher priority than others. Or, you might need to insert and enforce IEEE 802.1p priority or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) for traffic from mobile stations. In summary, these APs act like a switch or router in that they provide many of the functions of such devices.

The downside of such APs is complexity. Fat APs tend to be built on powerful hardware and require complex software. These devices are expensive to install and maintain because of the complexity. Nevertheless, the devices have uses in smaller network installations.

Some Fat AP installations still use a controller at the back end for control and management functions. These controllers lead to a slightly scaled-down version of the Fat AP, called, not surprisingly, a Fit AP, discussed later.

Thin Access Points

As their name indicates, Thin APs are intended to reduce the complexity of APs. An important motivation for this reduction is the location of APs. In several enterprises, APs are plenum-mounted (and thus in hard-to-reach areas) so that they can provide optimum radio connectivity for end stations. In environments like warehouses, this is even more evident. For such reasons, network managers prefer to install APs just once and not have to perform complex maintenance on them.

Thin APs are often known as intelligent antennas, in that their primary function is to receive and transmit wireless traffic. They backhaul the wireless frames to a controller where the frames are processed before being switched to the wired LAN (see the Figure ‘Thin APs in Centralized WLAN Network Architecture’).

The APs use a (typically secure) tunnel to backhaul the wireless traffic to the controller. In their most basic form, Thin APs do not even perform WLAN encryption such as Wired Equivalence Privacy (WEP) or WiFi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2). This encryption is done at the controller the APs just transmit or receive the encrypted wireless frames, thereby keeping the APs simple and avoiding the necessity to upgrade their hardware or software.

The introduction of WPA2 necessitated encryption on the controller. Although WPA was hardware-compatible with WEP and required only a firmware upgrade, WPA2 was not backward-compatible. Instead of replacing APs across the enterprise, network managers could just backhaul the wireless traffic to the controller where the WPA2 decryption was done, and the frames were sent on the wired LAN.

The protocol between the AP and the controller for carrying the control and data traffic was proprietary. Also, there is no capability to manage the AP as a single entity on the Layer 2/3 network it can be managed only through the controller, to which the NMS can communicate through HTTP, SNMP, or CLI/Telnet. A controller can manage and control multiple APs, implying that the controller should be based on powerful hardware and often be able to perform switching and routing functions. Another important requirement is that the connectivity and tunnel between the AP and the AC should ensure low delay for packets between those two entities.

With Thin APs, QoS enforcement and ACL-based filtering are handled at the controller not a problem because all the frames from the AP have to pass through the controller anyway. Centralized control functions for ACLs and QoS are not new they were implemented in networks with Fat APs too. Such installations have controllers that act as the gateway for managing traffic from APs to the wired network. However, the controller function takes on a new dimension with Thin APs, especially with respect to the data plane and forwarding functions. The controller function subsequently was integrated into Ethernet switches that connected the wireless and wired LANs the motivation for the family of devices known as WLAN switches.

The Wireless MAC architecture in this scenario is known as the Remote MAC architecture. The entire set of 802.11 MAC functions is offloaded to the WLAN controller, including the delay-sensitive MAC functions.

Fit Access Points

Fit APs are gaining in popularity in that they try to take advantage of the best of both worlds that is, the Fat APs and the Thin APs. A Fit AP provides the wireless encryption while using the AC for the actual key exchange. This approach is used for newer APs that use the latest wireless chipsets supporting WPA2. The management and policy functions reside on the controller that connects to multiple APs through tunnels.

Also, Fit APs provide additional functions such as DHCP relay for the station to obtain an IP address through DHCP. In addition, Fit APs can perform functions such as VLAN tagging based on the Service Set Identifier (SSID) that the client uses to associate with the AP (when the AP supports multiple SSIDs).

Two types of MAC implementations are possible with Fit APs, known as the Local MAC and the Split MAC architectures. Local MAC is where all the wireless MAC functions are performed at the AP. The complete 802.11 MAC functions, including management and control frame processing, are resident on the APs. These functions include time-sensitive functions (also known as Real Time MAC functions).

The Split MAC architecture divides the implementation of the MAC functions between the AP and the controller. The real-time MAC functions include functions such as beacon generation, probe transmission and response, control frame processing (for example Request to Send and Clear to Send RTS and CTS), retransmission, and so on. The non-real time functions include authentication and deauthentication; association and reassociation; bridging between Ethernet and Wireless LAN; fragmentation; and so on.

Vendors differ in the type of functions that are split between the AP and the controller, and in some cases, even about what constitutes real time. One common implementation of a Fit AP involves local MAC at the AP and control and management functions at the AP.

Reference from http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/press/internet-protocol-journal/back-issues/table-contents-13/wireless-lan-switches.html

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Introducing Cisco Software-Defined Storage Solutions

November 23 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Technology, #IT, #Data Center

Today the Storage plays a more and more important role in the data center: from storing email messages and documents to saving business-critical information, intellectual property, and transaction detail. As businesses continue to become more connected, the old ways of storing and archiving data are changing to accommodate growing amounts of data and demand for anytime, anywhere access to information.

Historically, IT organizations transitioned from systems with individual disk drives to storage arrays that allowed disk drives to be grouped together to form a larger area of capacity. When fast and easy access to more capacity was needed, storage area networks (SANs) and network attached storage (NAS) emerged to deliver capacity over the network. More recently, integrated systems and hyper-converged infrastructure have been added to networks to simplify resource acquisition and deployment and facilitate easy scaling. As companies try to balance storage access, performance, and cost, software-defined storage is becoming more popular, taking this evolution a step farther.

Software-defined storage is the next phase of server virtualization technology, moving beyond virtual machines to virtual data stores. It combines industry-standard x86-architecture servers that are optimized for direct-attached storage (DAS) with a distributed software abstraction layer. This intelligent software transforms systems into a single, logical pool of cost-effective, scale-out storage resources that are easily integrated and managed within your data center.

Cisco Solutions for Software-Defined Storage

Our solutions provide the storage flexibility you need to support growing amounts of data and deliver fast access to information and innovation. You can choose from a variety of systems and expansion cards according to the capacity and performance needs of your users and applications. Our modular approach lets you:

• Reduce risk and complexity: You need confidence that your software-defined infrastructure will work right the first time. Cisco’s collaboration and validation with a large partner ecosystem of software vendors gives you a choice of proven solutions and reference architectures while helping your IT staff integrate storage innovation with your IT processes and business applications at low risk. As a result, you can easily procure the solution you need and accelerate implementation and deployment.

Cisco Solutions Deliver the Foundation for Software-Defined Storage Deployments

Target Environments

  • File, block, and object storage
  • Email servers
  • Collaboration environments
  • Video surveillance archiving
  • Content distribution networks
  • Data protection solutions
  • Private cloud storage

• Gain versatility: The Cisco Unified Computing System (Cisco UCS) portfolio offers a variety of server options for rightsizing your software-defined storage deployments. You can deploy Cisco UCS C-Series Rack Servers to support many common storage scenarios, and use Cisco UCS S-Series Storage Servers when you need highly scalable and available storage infrastructure (Figure 1).

• Scale on demand: You can scale the storage capacity, performance, and protocols used in your software-defined storage infrastructure at your pace and with a smaller increment of scale than with traditional large-scale storage solutions. With the flexibility to choose what to scale and when to scale it, you can start with a small configuration and expand to petabytes of capacity, and you can distribute I/O operations among servers to accelerate I/O operations.

• Improve the efficiency of your IT operations: Cisco UCS Manager provides the automation you need to be efficient. Role- and policybased management makes it easy to deploy terabytes to petabytes of storage capacity in minutes. Cisco UCS service profiles and storage profiles extend these capabilities, allowing you to specify the ways that servers and disk drives should be identified, configured, connected, and used. You can configure hundreds of storage servers as easily as you can configure one, in a repeatable manner.

• Reduce vendor lock-in: Whether you need to support a remote or branch office or a large enterprise data center, our broad ecosystem of partners offers what you need. We work together to test, validate, and document joint solutions so that you can get your softwaredefined storage solutions up and running quickly and with confidence.

Next Steps Call your Cisco sales representative or authorized partner to find out how Cisco UCS solutions can help you create the best software-defined storage solution for your business and applications.

From https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/data-center-virtualization/software-defined-storage-solutions/software-defined-solution.pdf


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New Cisco UCS S3260 Storage Server: A Dense and Powerful Server for Scale-out Storage

November 22 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco & Cisco Network

Cisco introduced the new Cisco UCS S-Series Storage Servers-S3260 into the market in earlier November. The S Series is a new storage-optimized server category in the Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) portfolio designed specifically to address the needs of data intensive workloads such as Big Data, and for deploying software-defined storage, object storage, and data protection solutions.

The Cisco UCS S3260 Storage Server is a powerful, modular, and high-capacity storage-optimized rack server well suited for environments that need petabyte-scale storage. It provides dense, cost-effective storage to address your ever-growing data needs. Designed for a new class of data-intensive applications, it is simple to deploy and can handle many simultaneous uses, ranging from data protection to active archives to high performance computing, all within the same cluster.

Unlike some ultra-high-capacity servers, the S3260 has the right proportions of compute and storage to meet the demands of modern, storage-intensive workloads. Like the rest of the UCS portfolio, the S3260 is a powerful server with industry-leading networking, and it now offers over 600TB of capacity. Whether you experience a growth of data or a growth in demand for that data, the S3260 can handle it.

Key UCS S3260 Storage Server features for scale-out storage:

  • 1 or 2 server nodes per chassis
  • Cisco Integrated Management Controller (CIMC) allows pooling of drives and dynamic allocation of these drives to server nodes
  • Up to 56 top-loading 3.5” disk drives with support for partially populated chassis and as-needed expansion
  • Optional additional 4 rear-loading 3.5” disk drives (if only one server node is used)
  • 2 dedicated 2.5” SSD slots per server node (for system software)
  • 4x 40Gbps of I/O throughput with various network connectivity options

UCS S3260 hardware features that help create a leading cloud storage solution.

Now let’s read some details of the new UCS S3260 hardware from the following video.

Introducing the New Cisco UCS S-Series Storage Servers


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Multi-region private cloud storage with SwiftStack software and Cisco UCS S-Series servers


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Top 10 Facts about Cisco Wireless You Should Know

October 24 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Networking, #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP, #Cisco & Cisco Network

In this article we will share 10 facts of Cisco wireless that you should know. Cisco Wireless related facts may make you shout out: “Really?”

really,top 10 facts...

If you have any suggestions for additions, please share with us or go to the original page to have a discussion.

Top 10 Cisco Wireless “Good to Know”

1) Controller interface vlan tagging, native vlan 1

Cisco Switches by default do not tag the native vlan.  Also by default, the native vlan is 1, therefore vlan 1 is untagged.

When establishing a trunk to a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, it's important to be aware of how tagged vs untagged are identified.

(4400-A) >show interface summary

Interface Name   Port Vlan Id    IP Address      Type    Ap Mgr Guest

---------------  ---- ---------- --------------  -----   ------ -----

ap-manager       1    untagged       Static  Yes    No  

management       1    untagged       Static  No     No  

When going through a WLC's initial startup wizard, if untagged for the Management Interface’s vlan is desired, enter '0' (zero) when prompted for the management interface's vlan, as this is equivalent to 'untagged':

(Cisco Controller)

Welcome to the Cisco Wizard Configuration Tool

Use the '-' character to backup

Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:


Management Interface VLAN Identifier (0 = untagged): 0


2) AP Image Names: w7 vs w8

ap image names:

w7 = standalone

w8 = lightweight


Lightweight/controller based/capwap/lwapp image:

Cisco IOS Software, C1130 Software (C1130-K9W8-M), Version 12.4(23c)JZ, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) c1130-k9w8-mx.124-23c.JZ

Autonomous/IOS/Standalone image:

Cisco IOS Software, C1140 Software (C1140-K9W7-M), Version 12.4(21a)JY, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)c1140-k9w7-mx.124-21a.JY


3) AP Part Numbers: LAP vs AP

Most Cisco Access Points are available with two part numbers.

LAPxxx = shipped new from manufacturing with lightweight image

APxxx = shipped new from manufacturing with autonomous image

Same physical hardware.


Same physical ap's, the first is shipped with a lightweight image, the second with an IOS image:



Most AP's can be converted between both modes.


4) Wireless  LAN Controller DHCP Handling

Wireless Lan Controllers perform 'dhcp proxy' by default.  The ‘Dhcp Server’ IP Address configured on controller interfaces acts the same way as an 'ip helper' statement on a Cisco router. 

With this configuration in place, an IP Helper statement on the wireless clients’ default gateway router is not necessary.

DHCP Proxy can be configured via the WLC’s GUI in 6.x and 7.x code (Controller -> Advanced -> DHCP).

Earlier code requires CLI access for configuration:

(WLC) >show dhcp proxy

DHCP Proxy Behaviour: enabled

(WLC) >config dhcp proxy disable

(WLC) >show dhcp proxy

DHCP Proxy Behaviour: disabled



5) Lightweight AP modes: Local vs H-Reap (FlexConnect)

Local mode Access Point: tunnels all traffic to controller, controller responsible for tagging packets and putting them on the wired network, AP's switchport configured in access mode/non trunk.

H-Reap mode Access Point: ap's function similarly to standalone ap's, tag their own traffic, AP's switchport configured as trunk.  Vlan tagging requires configuration on each H-Reap mode AP (Via the controller’s Gui).

*H-Reap was renamed to 'FlexConnect' in 7.2 code.


6) Legacy Access Points End of Support

1500 Series, LAP-1505, LAP-1510: Last supported in 4.2.M controller code.

1000 Series, AP1010, AP1020, AP1030:  Last supported in 4.2 controller code.

1120/1230 Series, 1121, 1230, etc.  Last supported in 7.0 code.

1130, 1240, 1520. Last supported in 8.0 code (no support in 8.1 and later).

Software Release Support for Access Points


These Access Points will not join a controller running code later than supported.


7) AP console settings

•9600 baud

•8 data bits

•1 stop bit

•No parity

*********No hardware flow control******

These are the same settings for other Cisco devices.  It is essential that AP's console session have flow control disabled.  Most other Cisco devices will tolerate this setting if not disabled, but AP's will not.  The result is typically no display and/or keyboard response.


8) WLC Dynamic Interfaces, Does it Route?

Those familiar with Cisco routing and switching may get the impression that Wireless Lan Controllers have routing capability.  This may seem apparent due to the fact that multiple dynamic interfaces with ip addresses may be configured.  WLC's do not route.

The ip addresses assigned to the dynamic interfaces are not used for client traffic passing through the controller.

Dynamic interfaces' IP addresses primary functions are:

+ Referenced as Giaddr for DHCP Proxy (relay)

+ Multicast.  For wireless multicast receivers connected to local mode ap's, if the controller has IGMP snooping enabled, it will proxy/spoof IGMP reports to the wired network using the client's corresponding dynamic interface IP address.  If IGMP snooping on the controller is disabled, client IGMP reports are forwarded unmodified to the wired network.

+The IP address is checked when you do an intercontroller roam, so that  the WLC knows if you did a L2 or L3 roam, and whether to anchor your  traffic or to pass the MSCB entry to the new WLC.


9) Multicast

By default, multicast traffic is not forwarded by Wireless Lan Controllers for local mode ap's. 

A common source of confusion is that Autonomous Mode AP's will forward multicast just as they would unicast, so no configuration is required.  In the instance of Autonomous AP's being converted to Controller Based/Lightweight, multicast will no longer work until configured on the controller.

Since Controller based H-Reap mode ap's forward their own traffic, multicast will behave as if the AP were a standalone AP, and no controller configuration is required.


10) Anchored Wlans.  Where does authentication occur?

For Layer 3 authentication, e.g. Web Auth, authentication handling occurs on the Anchor Controller.

For Layer 2 authentication, e.g. 802.1x, authentication handling occurs on the Foreign controller.

…More Discussion

A: Regarding point 8 about the dynamic interfaces configured on the WLC, it is perhaps worth adding that they can act as source addresses when clients try to obtain an ip address via DHCP. This document explains more: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk722/tk809/technologies_configuration_example09186a00805e7a24.shtml


B: You may want to add what else the dynamic-interface IP comes to play for.  The IP address is checked when you do an intercontroller roam, so that the WLC knows if you did a L2 or L3 roam, and whether to anchor your traffic or to pass the MSCB entry to the new WLC.

C: A note on the AP support - I believe that some APs will join WLCs with code 8.1 but new features won't be supported such as AVC on local FlexConnect due to hardware limitations. 


Note The Cisco 1040 Series, 1140 Series, and 1260 Series access points have feature parity with Cisco Wireless Release 8.0. Features introduced in Cisco Wireless Release 8.1 and later are not supported on these access points.

…to be continued here…https://supportforums.cisco.com/blog/151191/top-10-cisco-wireless-%E2%80%9Cgood-know%E2%80%9D


More Topics Related to Cisco Wireless you can read here: http://blog.router-switch.com/category/technology/wireless/

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Introducing Cisco HDX (High Density Experience): Enhanced

October 7 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP, #Cisco & Cisco Network

Cisco HDX Manages Performance on Crowded Wi-Fi Networks Wi-Fi traffic is everywhere.

Cisco HDX Manages Performance on Crowded Wi-Fi Networks Wi-Fi traffic is everywhere.

Cisco HDX Manages Performance on Crowded Wi-Fi Networks Wi-Fi traffic is everywhere.

More users-employees, customers, and guests alike - are connecting to the network. Most of these users carry multiple Wi-Fi devices and many devices support only wireless connectivity. All this leads to lots of very dense Wi-Fi traffic in the air.

And with the introduction of 802.11ac Wave 2 technology, networks are only going to get more crowded. That’s why Cisco has enhanced its High Density Experience (HDX) suite of solutions, which automatically manages the airwaves and improves Wi-Fi performance.

Now, available on Cisco’s Indoor Access Points the Cisco Aironet 3800 and 2800 Series and the Cisco’s Outdoor Access Points the Cisco Aironet 1570 and 1560 Series Outdoor Access Point,

HDX is regularly updated with new features that alleviate high-density network strain and improve user experiences as 802.11ac and other trends load the airwaves with more traffic.

Managing Your Airwaves

• Alleviate network strain when large volumes of client devices contend for access point connectivity

• Improve Wi-Fi throughput and spectrum efficiency

• Prevent unnecessary Wi-Fi disconnections

• Enable access points to quickly change channels to mitigate interference or narrow bandwidth instead of abandoning the entire channel

• Allocate air time to specific user groups

Simplifying and Automating RF Tasks Below are some of the more recent HDX feature enhancements:

Enhanced Optimized Roaming: If performance degrades as Wi-Fi users move, this feature intelligently steers clients to an access point with a stronger signal - without interrupting the connection.

CleanAir for 160-MHz Channels: Proactive protection against RF interference with spectrum scanning, source identification, and remediation that now works across 160-MHz channel widths.

ClientLink: Cisco’s patented beamforming technology that improves performance of 802.11ac clients as well as 802.11a/g/n legacy clients.

Dynamic Bandwidth Selection (with FlexDFS): Continually analyzes and selects the best channel width for use in current conditions. If radar is detected on part, but not all, of the frequency, the access point can narrow the serving channel from 160 to 80 to 40 or 20 MHz, rather than moving entirely to a new frequency, enhancing spectrum efficiency.

• Event-Driven Radio Resource Management (ED-RRM): Rapidly changes channels to avoid interference, doing in seconds what previously could take minutes. IT can also set thresholds to determine when traffic automatically moves to a clear or less busy channel.

• HDX Air Time Fairness (ATF): Simplifies Wi-Fi traffic management by enabling network administrators to allocate specific percentages of airtime to heterogeneous groups of clients or customers.

More about the Cisco HDX Solution

HDX is a broad and comprehensive suite of solutions delivered in the Cisco Aironet 2700 and 3700 Series access points, consisting of both hardware and custom application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and software elements to provide optimal performance in high-density WLAN environments.

Cisco developed HDX to address the increasing proliferation of both wireless networks and wireless devices (such as smartphones, tablets, and PCs) carried by individual users - creating increased traffic. HDX directly addresses the expectations of both network administrators and mobile device users that WLANs will continue
to “just work” despite increasingly demanding scenarios.

In brief, when designing HDX, Cisco carefully considered the ramifications of increases in:

● Access point density (public and residential)

● Co-channel and adjacent channel interference

● Inter-access point contention

● Intra-access point contention (due to more clients and increased upstream)

● Client density

● Variation in client types

Therefore, HDX is essential for WLANs operating in environments that are characterized by any of the following:

● Many clients connected to a single access point

● Many colocated access points deployed as a single WLAN with partial to full channel (frequency) overlap

● Many independent yet neighboring WLANs needing to coexist in the same spectrum

● Increased loading due to more upstream and downstream video traffic: more FaceTime and Skype traffic (bidirectional interactive apps, unified communications), more mobile app downloads, more uploading of personal content (photos, cloud/sync functions, etc.)

HDX Features Provided in the Cisco Aironet 2700 and 3700 Series

The primary features of HDX are:

● Cisco CleanAir 80 MHz

● Cisco ClientLink 3.0

● Optimized Roaming enhanced with BSS Transition Management

● Turbo performance

● Enhancement: Dynamic Bandwidth Selection (with Flexible Dynamic Frequency Selection (FlexDFS))

● Enhancement: Wi-Fi triggered Event-Driven Radio Resource Management (ED-RRM)

● Enhancement: Air Time Fairness

● RF noise reduction (available in future versions)

Each of these features is detailed in the sections that follow.

Cisco is the only equipment vendor to have the complete suite of features that make up HDX. Furthermore, it is the only equipment vendor to have a purpose-built access point with hardware acceleration that supports HDX and that is designed specifically for the high-performance challenges of 802.11ac.

To learn more about the Cisco HDX solution, visit


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The New Cisco Industrial Ethernet 4010 Series Switches

September 14 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Switches - Cisco Firewall

Cisco IE 4010 Series Switches Models

Cisco IE 4010 Series Switches Models

IE 4010 Series-Solution Highlights and Capabilities

IE 4010 Series-Solution Highlights and Capabilities

Cisco IE 4010 Series Switches-Overview

Cisco IE 4010 Series Switches-Overview

How to choose your untypical IT equipment? Why you should choose an untypical network device? Here, we will share a new featured product for you: the Cisco Industrial Ethernet 4000 Series Switches.

Cisco IE4010 Series Switches offer 24 Gigabit PoE/PoE+ capable ports, making them an ideal choice for use as access switches in industrial environments to connect high definition IP cameras, Access Points and IP phones. These switches provide high-bandwidth switching (Layer 2) and proven Cisco IOS Software-based routing (Layer 3) capabilities to improve uptime, performance, and safety of industrial systems and equipment.

Cisco Industrial Ethernet 4010 Series Switches

  • Superior bandwidth and capacity-56-Gbps non-blocking switching capacity with 28-Gigabit-Ethernet (GE) ports
  • High-density, industrial Power over Ethernet (PoE) or PoE Plus (PoE+) support for in-line power to up to 24 devices
  • Cisco IOS Software features for smooth IT integration and policy consistency
  • Robust resiliency enabled by a dual-ring design with 4x Gigabit Ethernet uplink ports, Resilient Ethernet Protocol (REP), Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP), EtherChannel, and Flex Links support
  • Easy deployment, with zero-touch discovery using DHCP and an express setup with a swappable SD flash card

Industrial environments can be tough on any equipment, but especially on networking hardware. Your typical IT equipment was never designed to withstand the poundings, dirt, and grime found in most industrial environments. Plus, these pieces of equipment require significant reconfiguring to serve the computing and technology needs of industrial manufacturers and utilities.

The Cisco Industrial Ethernet 4010 (IE4010) Series Switches are flexible and scalable industrial Ethernet switches. They were developed specifically to withstand rugged industrial environments meeting industrial customers’ needs. With 24 Gigabit PoE/PoE+ capable ports, it’s suitable to connect high definition IP cameras, Access Points, or IP Phones.

The ruggedized Cisco IE4010 Series forms the foundation of a wide array of technology solutions for multiple industries, such as:

• Factory automation

• Smart cities

• Substation automation

• Intelligent transportation systems

Benefits-The New Cisco IE 4010 Series Switches

• Reduced downtime through highavailability technology to facilitate networkwide resilience and increased IP network availability

Lower operating costs with inline power for PoE/PoE+ devices, allowing easy installation and updates without an overhaul of the electrical layout

• Improved security with integration of security policy enforcement within the switch without creating traffic bottlenecks

• Investment protection from software licensing, which offers new improved software features without requiring hardware upgrades

• Improved efficiency of your internal IT and operations teams using a single, standardized platform

• Increased speed and flexibility needed to bring products to market and adapt to changing business challenges

How It Works

The Cisco IE4010 Series complements other Cisco IE product families, delivering high performance, rich feature sets, and extensive and scalable Power over Ethernet (PoE)/PoE+ options.

The switches can be set up and operated easily by your internal IT and operations staff, helping you automate industrial processes much more quickly. The embedded Cisco IOS Software also allows you to quickly integrate new switches and connect all your industrial endpoints for greater visibility, control, and access and can automatically detect new endpoints whenever they’re brought online. Plus, with the built-in Cisco SmartPorts technology, your staff can assign the correct quality-of-service (QoS) functions for a desired connection quickly and easily.

An embedded web-based Device Manager provides real-time visibility of your switch configuration and performance. The color-coded displays and animated indicators of the application help simplify management and monitoring tasks. It also has alert functions that help you identify and solve networking problems when they arise.

Designed Tough and Built for Industrial Use

The Cisco IE4010 Series Switches were built to withstand and even thrive in harsh operating environments and temperatures ranging from –40 to 75°C. With no moving parts, the switches come enclosed in tough casings designed for serious protection from dust, dirt, grime, high humidity, electromagnetic fields, and extreme vibrations. They support network standards and protocols such as Ethernet/IP, CIP, and Profinet so you can set up and connect industrial equipment and automation applications quickly and easily.

Use Case Examples

• Increase solution redundancy and connect high-speed automation devices in connected factories and electrical substations by using uplinks to form redundant ring topology and provide multiple Gigabit Ethernet connectivity.

• Connect access points and provide high-speed Wi-Fi coverage along oil/gas pipelines and mining fields in remote locations.

• Provide bandwidth and large amounts of PoE ports required to support citywide surveillance IP camera infrastructure.

• Connect mass transportation to provide voice, video, and data services to passengers.

Easy to Deploy and Manage

Cisco IE4010 Series Switches use the same Cisco IOS Software with which you’re already familiar, so switch integration and connecting endpoints are simple. Out-of-the-box configuration enables you to set a switch up with one click. It also contains line-rate, low-latency forwarding with advanced hardware assist features—for example, Network Address Translation (NAT), Multilayer Traffic Prioritization, Multicast, IEEE 1588, and support for multiple traffic protection technologies including Cisco REP and PROFINET MRP and more—to make interoperability and management tasks easier and more efficient.

Strong Security

The solution supports all of the security features you expect in a Cisco switch, including 802.1x port security, dynamic port-based authentication, encrypted administrative traffic, IEEE 802.1AE MACsec encryption, FIPS compliance, centralized authentication, and more.

Industrial Power over Ethernet

With PoE, you can connect and power devices using a single cable. These switches support high-density, industrial PoE/PoE+ support for up to 24 devices, including IP cameras and phones, badge readers, wireless access points, and more. PoE helps you reduce complexity in your warehouse or factory, lower costs of necessary wiring and other equipment, and enjoy the flexibility and freedom of ready-to-use devices.

More info from http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/switches/industrial-ethernet-4010-series-switches/at-a-glance-c45-737281.pdf

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Updated: Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831

September 8 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco IP Phones, #Cisco & Cisco Network

Updated-Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831

Updated-Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831

The Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831’s Features-Specs

The Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831’s Features-Specs

The Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831 has been updated, more new features are here. What are new features include? Let’s read the latest data sheet of Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831.

The Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831 offers many improvements. New features include:

● Superior wideband acoustics with the first two-element speaker in a conference phone; this feature allows the phone to capture the full voice spectrum without having to compromise with a single-element speaker

● Expanded room coverage with support for daisy chaining two units

● Support for optional DECT wireless extension microphone: sold separately

● Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) signaling

● Device authentication and signaling encryption using Transport Layer Security (TLS) with Advanced Encryption Standard 128 (AES-128)

● Media encryption using Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP) with AES-128



The Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831 requires an Enhanced User Connect License (UCL) on Cisco UCM Versions 9.0 and later. For supported Cisco UCM versions before 9.0, a public space license is required.

More the newest info of Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831, such as the Product Specifications (System Specifications, Temperature, Safety and EMC), Ordering Information (including Cisco Call Control, Non-Cisco SIP Based Call Control, 8831 Accessories, Power Cords) you can read the full data sheet:


The Cisco Unified IP Conference Phone 8831 enhances people-centric communications, combining superior high‑definition (HD) audio performance and 360-degree coverage for all sizes of conference rooms and executive offices. It provides an audiophile sound experience with a full-duplex two-way wideband (G.722) audio hands-free speaker.

The IP Conference Phone 8831 is a simple, scalable solution that meets the challenges of the most diverse rooms. It provides flexible deployment options and expansion by using optional extension microphones that can be wired or wireless (Digital Equipment Cordless Telephone [DECT]) with a daisy-chain configuration of two units.

The IP Conference Phone 8831 has an industrial design with enhanced ergonomics that puts the user first. It offers a detached control panel so that the display may be easily viewed without having to move the entire unit. It also provides easy view of device mute status from all sides.

Supported on Cisco Unified Communications Manager and Business Edition systems, the IP Conference Phone 8831 delivers a more productive, acoustically pleasing, and secure communications experience across sites and participants.

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Cisco Business Edition 7000-Empower, Engage, Innovate

September 2 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Technology - IT News, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco News

Cisco Business Edition 7000 Solution

Cisco Business Edition 7000 Solution

Business Edition 7000 (BE7000) Specifications at a Glance

Business Edition 7000 (BE7000) Specifications at a Glance

Built on the virtualized Cisco Unified Computing System (Cisco UCS) platform, the Cisco Business Edition 7000 (BE7000) is equipped with premium Cisco Collaboration applications for voice, video, mobility, messaging, conferencing, instant messaging and presence, and contact center. Turn them on as your collaboration needs increase and easily scale your users and devices by deploying additional BE7000 servers. The modular building block design of BE7000 is ideal for deployments from several hundred users to tens of thousands of users, providing plenty of room for future growth.

Here’s what you get:

Complete service offering: End-to-end collaboration capabilities include voice, video, conferencing, messaging, instant messaging and presence (IM&P), mobility, contact center, and more, for every user on any device from any location.

Simplified deployment and management: Preconfigured virtualized servers come with ready-to-run virtualization software and ready-to-activate collaboration applications, significantly reducing time to dial tone.

Scalable and highly available platforms: Get a building-block design: simply stack servers to add more users, devices, and collaboration capabilities. “Pay as you grow” platforms scale to support deployments of any size.

Open and interoperable architecture: Innovative system transparently supports third-party applications and telepresence and video endpoints.

These powerful, centralized, feature-rich communications and collaboration solutions are optimized for large organizations with thousands of users and devices. And they are all deployed on one converged, centrally managed infrastructure. That means server hardware and virtualized resources are all integrated for easy procurement and faster, more cost-effective implementation.

Customer Benefits

Cisco Business Edition 7000 is a customizable collaboration solution that can help you:

  • Delight your users with interactive, intuitive, easy-to-use collaboration
  • Boost productivity with efficient, highly secure, connected workspaces
  • Reduce complexity with a simple, easy-to-manage platform
  • Lower total cost of ownership with cost-effective, time-saving operations
  • Protect investments with a scalable, modular, stackable design

Integrated Versus Separate Solutions

Unified communications applications have joined voice and email as vital services for enterprise environments. With a BE7000, IT can deliver more with far less effort and cost. One integrated and interoperable platform offers all the communications and collaboration services you need. Each solution comes preloaded with all core applications ready to activate. This simplifies and reduces the time required to set up, install, and deploy collaboration capabilities across the organization. And a broad range of third-party applications is also supported, extending the breadth and depth of the platform to support the tools you prefer for your business – all centrally managed with one intuitive, easy-to-use management tool.

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Introducing Cisco Unified Communications 11.x and 10.x Licensing

August 9 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco License, #Cisco Technology - IT News, #Cisco & Cisco Network

Cisco Unified Communications 11.x and 10.x Licensing

Cisco Unified Communications 11.x and 10.x Licensing

Description of UCL Levels

Description of UCL Levels

Cisco Unified Communications 11.x and 10.x licensing is here!

Cisco Unified Communications 11.x and 10.x licensing has three levels

Cisco Unified Workspace Licensing (UWL) Meetings Edition

This edition is a complete unified communications and video solution. It includes all features in the Standard Edition plus Personal Multiparty Plus unlimited video conferencing – including the new Cisco Meeting Server as well as Cisco TelePresence Server and Conductor, Cisco WebEx Meetings Server on-premises conferencing, session management, and contact center capabilities.

Cisco UWL Standard Edition

Built on the reliable Cisco Unified Communications Manager platform, this edition includes call control, voice messaging, Cisco Expressway, and soft clients. Instant messaging and presence are also included as a perpetual license on premises.

Cisco User Connect Licensing (UCL) Enhanced and Enhanced Plus

A per-user license for the following individual Cisco Unified Communications applications:

• Cisco Unified Communications (including instant messaging and presence and Cisco Jabber desktop and mobile clients)

• Cisco Unity Connection

• Cisco Business Edition

Licensing Options for the Way You Work

Your business isn’t like any others. That’s why we offer a variety of software licensing options to meet your needs, regardless of the size of your business, the way your employees work, and the tools you need.

Depending on the type and number of devices you require, UCL is available in Essential, Basic, Enhanced, and Enhanced Plus versions.

Essential UCL and Basic UCL: User-based licenses for individual Cisco Unified Communications products. Each includes applications server software and user licensing for a single device supported by the Essential UCL or Basic UCL functions. These licenses also provide on-premises instant messaging clients and presence software for the entire organization.

• Enhanced UCL and Enhanced Plus UCL: User-based licenses for individual Cisco Unified Communications products that support Cisco’s entire portfolio of user devices. They each include a soft client, applications server software, and user licensing. Enhanced UCL covers a single device, and Enhanced Plus allows for two. The licenses also provide on-premises instant messaging clients and presence software for the entire organization. Table 1 describes the four levels of UCL.

What Is Cisco Unified Workspace Licensing? Cisco UWL provides the most popular bundles of Cisco collaboration applications and services in a cost-effective, simple package. Licensed per user, it includes:

• Application server software

• User license

• Soft clients

Cisco Software Support Service is required to access technical support, minor updates, and major software upgrades.

Licensing Requirements

The requirements for Cisco UWL are as follows:

• UWL Meetings Edition licensing requires a minimum of 25 users; the Standard Edition has a minimum of 1 user.

• You can mix UCL with UWL Standard and Meetings Editions.

• A 1-year Cisco Software Support Service (SWSS) contract is required. These contracts can be coterminous upon renewal.

Info from http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/unified-communications/unified-communications-licensing/C45_523902_11_9_licensing_aag_v5a_1.pdf

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802.11ac Wave 2’s Impact is World Wide, WHY?

July 13 2016 , Written by Cisco & Cisco Router, Network Switch Published on #Cisco Wireless - Cisco Wireless AP, #Cisco & Cisco Network, #Cisco Technology - IT News

802.11ac Wave 2’s Impact is World Wide

802.11ac Wave 2’s Impact is World Wide

802.11ac Wave 2 APs

802.11ac Wave 2 APs

Everyone says I love 802.11ac Wave 2. The Impact of 802.11ac Wave 2 is World Wide, Why? We also talked about the 802.11ac Wave 2 and 802.11ac Wave 2 Access Points a lot.

Yes, make no mistake the affect of the 802.11ac Wave 2 standard is going to be global and won’t just affect specific business areas.

One key part of Wave 2 802.11ac technology that helps keep your organization ahead of the capacity crunch is multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO).

(MU-MIMO allows an access point to transmit to multiple clients at the same time, instead of sending data to a single client at a time. These parallel transmissions improve RF efficiency when client devices also support 802.11ac Wave 2.)

With Muti-User MIMO (MU-MIMO), 802.11ac Wave 2 clients are on and off the network so fast allowing for more legacy clients to be served. Plus 802.11ac Wave 2-enabled smart phones, laptops and tablets, will jump on the 5Ghz band leaving the 2.4GHz bands for older devices.

With the higher speeds of 802.11ac Wave 2, it takes a lot less time to transmit data than it did with previous Wi-Fi standards. This preserves battery life on Wave 2 clients. That means in the long run, updating your wireless network to 802.11ac Wave 2 standards will provide a better user experience for your users.

Now, let’s look at why 802.11ac Wave 2’s Impact is World Wide.

Schools need to support 802.11ac Wave 2 because more and more students are bringing devices to class. And it’s not to sneak a peek at the latest Taylor Swift video; educators are using tablets and other mobile devices as part of the education process. While additional devices and apps that will consume bandwidth are a big reason for the upgrade, it’s not the only thing. Schools need an 802.11ac Wave 2 network that can:

• Support up-to-the minute notification on mobile devices.
• Detect externally launched attacks and insider threats.
• Automatically adapts to environment changes for optimal performa

Whether you’re a small coffee shop or a large department store, it’s not just your workers that need exemplary Wi-Fi, customers demand this service too. Cisco Aironet Access Points are great tools to gather data in order to understand customer traffic patterns and behaviors, prioritizing your business-driving apps and better protecting the privacy of your business. Your customers need to be able to jump on a network too and:

• Connect to a custom guest access network (which can be used as another advertising venue).
• Be able to find the things that they want, quicker.
• Adapt to flash crowds during sales eve

In the old days, putting out an array of stale donuts in the morning and offering travelers a bed for the night was the peak of hospitality luxury. Those days are long gone as guests are now a bit savvier than they once were and expect a multitude of high-end services. One of these services is a robust wireless network. If you’re in the hospitality game, you need an 802.11ac Wave 2 compliant network because:

• It delivers mobile check-in, key lock and room control
• It quickly deploys wireless access for conventions and social gatherings
• It adapts to crowd surges during high volume of registra

Where Does Cisco Fit In?

That third bullet brings me to one of the most amazing things about the Cisco Aironet Access Points, and that are the innovations that only Cisco delivers:

Flexible Radio Assignment automatically adjusts radio bands to better serve the environment. A Cisco Aironet Access Point deployed in a hotel lobby can handle a crowd of people armed with mobile devices frantically looking to get settled in their rooms. Flexible Radio Assignment automatically triggers the access point to shift from the dual radios operation at 2.4GHz and 5GHz to both radios offering 5GHz.
• Cisco CleanAir remediates device impacting interference
• Optimized Roaming intelligently connects the proper access point as people move
Multi-Gigabit Uplinks provides faster wired network offload on existing Ethernet

Your Cisco 802.11ac Wave 2 access points aren’t static. They offer investment protection via the ability to expand along with your organization with three ports located on the Cisco Access Point. A smart antenna port allows you to add either another antenna be it of the Stadium Panel, Directional or Location variety. A built-in module port is perfect for connecting hardware such as a video surveillance device. While a USB port allows you to add a Bluetooth capabiities.

Preparing for 802.11ac Wave 2 is not a one-sized-fits-all solution. Cisco has a wide access point portfolio that offers different solutions to fit different situations. The Cisco Aironet 1830 and 1850 Series Access Points are perfect fits for small to medium-sized businesses. These devices offer the functions and features of an enterprise-level access point and they are the lowest cost 802.11ac Wave 2 AP on the market today.

For mission-critical organizations, look no further that Cisco Aironet 2800 Series Access Point. More robust than the Cisco Aironet 1830 and 1850 Access Points, the 2800 Series is built for large sized organizations. Rounding out the portfolio is the Best-in-Class solution: the Cisco Aironet 3800 Access Point. This product is targeted specifically for larger areas such as stadiums and arenas.

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