Both switch engines are scheduled to ship in April.
In general, the Catalyst switches are designed for the campus backbone, the wiring closet, or a small office or retail network. Switch engines, which are the brains of the Catalyst, extend the usefulness of the hardware as application-driven network traffic rises.
The 6T raises speeds to 400 Gbps per slot on the Catalyst 6807-XL chassis. As a result, the supervisor engine can increase switch capacity to 6 Tbps and scale to 12 Tbps when in the Virtual Switching System configuration. The Supervisor Engine 6T is compatible with 10 Gb, 40 Gb and 100 Gb line cards, and has 8 x 10 GbE and 2 x 40 GbE uplinks to support high-performance applications.
The 8L-E has up to 560 Gbps of wired switching capacity and can handle independent packets simultaneously at a rate of 48 Gbps. The extension has four 10 GbE uplinks.
Cisco upgrades wireless, UCS platforms
With the latest switch engines, Cisco introduced the Catalyst 3650-Mini for companies with space-constrained locations. The hardware mirrors the 3650 family of switches in a 1RU form factor. It's available with 24 or 48 fixed PoE+ GbE ports.
For wireless networks, Cisco introduced 802.11ac Wave 2 access points under the Aironet and cloud-managed Meraki brands. The company also introduced stackable Meraki MS Switches that feature 16 or 32 1 Gbps ports, and hot-swappable power supplies and fans.
The Catalyst and wireless network upgrades reflect Cisco's two-prong product strategy of strengthening its on-premises and cloud-managed technology, which also includes security, said Rohit Mehra, an analyst at IDC. By focusing on both, Cisco is bolstering its core platforms for switching and routing, while also addressing the needs of the "midmarket, distributed enterprise that is developing a greater affinity for leveraging cloud for IT infrastructure."
For the data center, Cisco introduced the 6300 Series Fabric Interconnect for the company's Unified Computing System (UCS), which combines compute, storage and networking into a single platform. Cisco's fabric interconnects provide the management and communication backbone of the UCS B-Series Blade Servers, 5100 Series Blade Server Chassis and the C-Series Rack Servers.
The 6300 Series features two 1RU 40 GbE switches and a 40 GbE Fabric Extender. The products leverage the Virtual Interface Card 1300 series, which is designed to support up to 40 GbE networks. The card supports network overlay technologies, such as VXLAN.
The Article from http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/news/4500272897/Cisco-switch-engines-boost-Catalyst-performance
There are two main categories of Ethernet Switches: Modular and Fixed Configuration.
What are the Exact Modular and Fixed Configuration switches?
Modular switches, as the name implies, allows you to add expansion modules into the switches as needed, thereby delivering the best flexibility to address changing networks. Examples of expansion modules are application-specific (such as Firewall, Wireless, or Network Analysis), modules for additional interfaces, power supplies, or cooling fans.
Fixed Configuration switches are switches with a fixed number of ports and are typically not expandable.
The Fixed configuration switch category is further broken down into:
– Unmanaged Switches
– Smart Switches
– Managed L2 and L3 Switches
This category of switch is the most cost effective for deployment scenarios that require only basic layer 2 switching and connectivity. As such, they fit best when you need a few extra ports on your desk, in a lab, in a conference room, or even at home.
With some Unmanaged switches in the market, you can even get capabilities such as cable diagnostics, prioritization of traffic using default QoS settings, Energy savings capabilities using EEE (Energy Efficient Ethernet) and even PoE (Power Over Ethernet). However, as the name implies, these switches generally cannot be modified/managed. You simply plug them in and they require no configuration at all.
Cisco 100 Series switches are good examples of this category.
Smart Switches (also known as Lightly Managed Switches):
This category of switches is the most blurred and fastest changing. The general rule here is that these switches offer certain levels of Management, QoS, Security, etc. but is “lighter” in capabilities and less scalable than the Managed switches. It therefore makes them a cost-effective alternative to Managed switches. As such, Smart switches fit best at the edge of a large network (with Managed Switches being used in the core), as the infrastructure for smaller deployments, or for low complexity networks in general.
The capabilities available for this Smart switch category vary widely. All of these devices have an interface for Management – historically a browser-based interface used to be the only way to configure these devices, though nowadays you can manage some of these devices with CLI and/or SNMP/RMON as well. Regardless, these capabilities are lighter than what you will find in their Managed switch counterparts. Smart switches tend to have a management interface that is more simplified than what Managed Switches offer.
Smart switches allow you to segment the network into workgroups by creating VLANs, though with a lower number of VLANs and nodes (MAC addresses) than you’d get with a Managed switch.
They also offer some levels of security, such as 802.1x endpoint authentication, and in some cases with limited numbers of ACLs (access control lists), though the levels of control and granularity would not be the same as a Managed switch.
In addition, Smart switches support basic quality-of-service (QoS) that facilitates prioritization of users and applications based on 802.1q/TOS/DSCP, thereby making it quite a versatile solution.
Cisco 200 Series switches are good examples of this category.
Fully Managed L2 and L3 switches:
Managed Switches are designed to deliver the most comprehensive set of features to provide the best application experience, the highest levels of security, the most precise control and management of the network, and offer the greatest scalability in the Fixed Configuration category of Switches. As a result, they are usually deployed as aggregation/access switches in very large networks or as core switches in relatively smaller networks. Managed switches should support both L2 switching and L3 IP routing though you’ll find some with only L2 switching support.
From a Security perspective, Managed switches provide protection of the data plane (User traffic being forwarded), control plane (traffic being communicated between networking devices to ensure user traffic goes to the right destination), and management plane (traffic used to manage the network or device itself). Managed switches also offer network storm control, denial-of-service protection, and much more.
The Access Control List capabilities allows for flexibly dropping, rate limiting, mirroring, or logging of traffic by L2 address, L3 address, TCP/UDP port numbers, Ethernet type, ICMP or TCP flags, etc.
Managed switches are rich in features that enable them to protect themselves and the network from deliberate or unintended Denial of Service attacks. It includes Dynamic ARP Inspection, IPv4 DHCP snooping, IPv6 First Hop Security with RA Guard, ND Inspection, Neighbor Binding Integrity, and much more.
Additional Security capabilities may include Private VLANs for securing communities of users or device isolation, Secure Management (downloads through SCP, Web-based Authentication, Radius/TACACS AAA, etc), Control Plane Policing (CoPP) for protecting the CPU of the switch, richer support for 802.1x (time-based, Dynamic VLAN Assignment, port/host-based, etc)
From a Scalability perspective, these devices have large table sizes so that you can create large numbers of VLANs (for workgroups), devices (MAC table size), IP routes, and ACL policies for flow-based security/QoS purposes, etc.
For highest network availability and uptime, Managed switches support L3 redundancy using VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol), large numbers of Link Aggregation groups (which is used both for scalability and resiliency), and capabilities for protecting L2 such as Spanning Tree Root Guard and BPDU Guard.
When we talk about QoS and Multicast features, the richness of capabilities goes far beyond what you’d see in a Smart Switch. Here you’d see things such as IGMP and MLD Snooping with Querier functions for optimizing IPv4/v6 multicast traffic in the LAN, TCP Congestion Avoidance, 4 or 8 queues to treat traffic differently by importance, setting/tagging traffic by L2 (802.1p) or L3 (DSCP/TOS), and rate limiting traffic.
In terms of Management, things such as multiple ways to configure (using CLI, Web GUI, SNMP Management application), discovering of neighbor devices in the networks (using CDP, LLDP, Bonjour, etc), and troubleshooting capabilities (such as VLAN and Port Mirroring, Traceroute, Ping, Syslog, Cable Diagnostics, RMON, etc) are all included.
What I highlighted is by no means exhaustive, but gives you a sense of what some of the differences may be between Managed and Smart Switches.
Cisco Catalyst and Cisco 300 Series and 500 Series switches are good examples of this category of products.
Managed Switches can go even further than what I’ve highlighted. For example, there’s even richer support for Dynamic Unicast and Multicast Routing protocols, deeper flow intelligence or macro flow statistics with Netflow/SFlow, non-Stop Forwarding capabilities, MPLS/VRF support, Policy enforcement, and many others.
Now, to take a deeper dive into these switch categories and talk about various options, you can select the switches based on:
– Number of ports
– POE versus non-POE
– Stackable versus Standalone
You can find Fixed Configuration switches in Fast Ethernet (10/100 Mbps), Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000 Mbps), Ten Gigabit (10/100/1000/10000 Mbps) and even some 40/100 Gbps speeds. These switches have a number of uplink ports and a number of downlink ports. Downlinks connect to end users – uplinks connect to other Switches or to the network infrastructure. Currently, Gigabit is the most popular interface speed though Fast Ethernet is still widely used, especially in price-sensitive environments. Ten Gigabit has been growing rapidly, especially in the datacenter and, as the cost comes down, it will continue to expand into more network applications. With 10GBase-T Ten Gigabit copper interfaces being integrated into LOM (LAN on the Motherboard) and 10G-Base-T switches becoming available now (see the Cisco SG500XG-8F8T 16-port 10-Gigabit switch), building a Storage or Server farm with 10 Gigabit interfaces has never been easier or more cost-effective. 40G/100G is still emerging and will be mainstream in a few years.
Number of ports:
Fixed Configuration Switches typically come in 5, 8, 10, 16, 24, 28, 48, and 52-port configurations. These ports may be a combination of SFP/SFP+ slots for fiber connectivity, but more commonly they are copper ports with RJ-45 connectors on the front, allowing for distances up to 100 meters. With Fiber SFP modules, you can go distances up to 40 kilometers
POE versus non-POE:
Power over Ethernet is a capability that facilitates powering a device (such as an IP phone, IP Surveillance Camera, or Wireless Access Point) over the same cable as the data traffic. One of the advantages of PoE is the flexibility it provides in allowing you to easily place endpoints anywhere in the business, even places where it might be difficult to run a power outlet. One example is that you can place a Wireless Access Point inside a wall or ceiling.
Switches deliver power according to a few standards – IEEE 802.3af delivers power up to 15.4 Watts on a switch port whereas IEEE 802.3at (also known as POE+) delivers power up to 30 Watts on a switch port. For most endpoints, 802.3af is sufficient but there are devices, such as Video phones or Access Points with multiple radios, which have higher power needs. It’s important to point out that there are other PoE standards currently being developed that will deliver even high levels of power for future applications. Switches have a power budget set aside for running the switch itself, and also an amount of power dedicated for POE endpoints.
To find the switch that is right for you, all you need to do is choose a switch according to your power needs. When connecting to desktops or other types of devices which do not require POE, the non-POE switches are a more cost-effective option.
Stackable versus Standalone:
As the network grows, you will need more switches to provide network connectivity to the growing number of devices in the network. When using Standalone switches, each switch is managed, troubleshot, and configured as an individual entity.
In contrast, Stackable switches provide a way to simplify and increase the availability of the network. Instead of configuring, managing, and troubleshooting eight 48-port switches individually, you can manage all eight like a single unit using a Stackable Switches. With a true Stackable Switch, those eight switches (total 384 ports) function as a single switch – there is a single SNMP/RMON agent, single Spanning Tree domain, single CLI or Web interface – i.e. single management plane. You can also create link aggregation groups spanning across multiple units in the stack, port mirror traffic from one unit in the stack to another, or setup ACLs/QoS spanning all the units. There are valuable operational advantages to be gained by this approach.
Here’s a word of warning. Be careful about products in the market which are sold as “Stackable” when they merely offer a single user interface, or central management interface, for getting to each individual switch unit. This approach is not stackable, but really “clustering”. You still have to configure every feature such as ACLs, QoS, Port mirroring, etc, individually on each switch. Use the following as a proof point – can I create a link aggregation group with one port in one unit of the stack and another port of that group in another unit of the stack? Can I select a port on one unit in the stack and mirror the traffic to a port on another unit of the stack? When I configure an ACL for Security purposes, can I apply that to any port on any unit in the stack? If the answer is “No” to any of these questions, you’re probably not working with a stackable switch.
There are other advantages of True Stacking as well. You can connect the stack members in a ring such that, if a port or cable fails, the stack will automatically route around that failure, many times at microsecond speeds. You can also add or subtract stack members and have it automatically recognized and added into the stack.
Cisco Catalyst 2K-X and 3K or Cisco 500 Series Switches are examples of Switches in this category.
As you can see there’s a multitude of switch options to choose from. So, have a close look at your current deployment and future needs to determine the right switch for your network.
More Related Cisco Network Switch Topics
Do you know how to configure the ASA as CA Server? You know the Cisco ASA can act as a Certificate Authority server an issue certificates to the VPN clients or other network devices.
The Cisco ASA only provides browser-based certificate enrollment.
Before to proceed with the configuration, make sure the time on your ASA is correct (Show clock) or use a NTP server to synchronize the time across your network devices.
We cannot specify the CA server name, because you can only have one instance of Local CA server running at the same time.
Under the Crypto ca server mode, we have multiple options explained as follows:
CA Server configuration commands:
- CDP-URL: Specifies the certificate revocation list distribution point to be included in the certificates issued by the CA.
- Database: Specifies a path or location for the local CA database. The default location is flash memory.
- Enrollment-retrieval: Specifies the time in hours that an enrolled user can retrieve a PKCS12 enrollment file.
- Issuer-name: Indicates that rule entry is applied to the issuer DN of the IPSec peer certificate.
- Keysize: Configure the size of keypair to generate for certificate enrollments for the local CA server.
- Lifetime CA-certificate: Specify the lifetime for the CA certificate.
- Lifetime certificate: Specify the lifetime for the user certificate.
- Lifetime CRL: Specify the lifetime for the CRL.
- OTP expiration: Specify the lifetime for the OTP expiration.
- Publish-CRL: Make the CRL available for download via HTTP on the specified interface.
- Renewal-reminder: Specify the time prior the CA certificate expiration, the ASA will notify the users via email.
- SMTP from address: Specify the email from which the notification will be sent to deliver the OTP password and enrollment invitations.
- SMTP subject: Customize the email subject.
- Subject-name-default: Specify an optional SUBJECT-NAME DN.
Basic ASA configuration as CA server
ASDM -> Configuration -> Remote Access VPN -> Certificate Management - Local Certificate Authority
Equivalent CLI configuration.
ASA(config)# Crypto ca server
ASA(config-ca-server)# lifetime ca-certificate 100 ASA(config-ca-server)# lifetime certificate 30 ASA(config-ca-server)# smtp from-address email@example.com ASA(config-ca-server)# smtp subject Certificate enrollment ASA(config-ca-server)# keysize 2048 ASA(config-ca-server)# cdp-url http://cisco/+CSCOCA+/asa_ca.crl ASA(config-ca-server)# subject-name-default CN=BoB , O=Cisco, C= US ASA(config-ca-server)# no shutdown
Once the CA server has been enabled , we cannot do any modification to the configuration unless we shutdown the server.
Show and debugs commands:
- Debug crypto ca server
- Show crypto ca server
- Show crypto ca server cert-db
More information http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/security/asa/asa81/config/guide/config/cert_cfg.html
Original Guide From https://supportforums.cisco.com/document/12597006/how-configure-asa-ca-server
More Cisco and Network Guide
We talked about the Cisco Transceiver Modules a lot before, such as the S-Class Optics vs. Non-S-Class Optics, the CVR-X2-SFP10G & CVR-X2-SFP10G=, and the Cisco 10GBASE X2 Module & SFP Compatibility.
These are all the popular questions asked by customers. Here in this article we will continue to share the Cisco 6807-XL Slots issue put forwarded by Cisco users. What did they discuss about that? Let’s see the details…
The Question: “I want to choose 6807-XL as a core switch in my project, but I have question! Can I use 6 cards as a module and 1 as SUP 2T or I must use 5 Slots for modules cards?? Because I need One SUP 2T and I want to use the rest of 6 slots for module cards, Can I do that?”
…The pinouts between the module slots and sup slots are different. So slots 5 and 6 are reserved for sups and can't be used with regular modules.
So is there any model more than 7 slots from 6800 series?
Another Question: “There is a difference between X2-10GB-SR= and SFP-10G-SR= because I want to replace the WS-X6816-10G-2T card with C6800-32P10G-XL which can carry 32 ports 10G with One card so I can save one slot! Can I do that?”
…The Cisco 6807 is the larger chassis you can get on the 6800 series. As for 16 port 10Gig vs. 32 port 10Gig, you can defiantly use the 32 port 10gig module to solve the issue if not having enough slots for all your 10Gig interfaces. Also, you can enable VSS on the 6800 series to give you the redundancy you need without using HSRP/VRRP, etc...
“And but 16port 10Gig uses Pluggable transceivers X2-10GB-SR= and 32port 10Gig uses Pluggable transceivers SFP-10G-SR=?! Is there any difference between them? Or both them the same!”
You need the 16 port 10Gig SFP+ or the 32 port 10Gig SFP+
See this link for part numbers and descriptions:
C6800-16P10G, a 16-port 10-Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Module with DFC4, and C6800-16P10G-XL, a16-port 10-Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Module with DFC4XL
C6800-32P10G, a 32-port 10-Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Module with DFC4, and C6800-32P10G-XL, a 32-port 10-Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Module with DFC4XL
The difference between WS-X6816-10G-2T card and C6800-32P10G-XL?
X2 and SFP are different form factors. On some of these, you CAN get a twinGig adapter to convert an X2 into multiple SFP ports, but I don't think these can be 10G SFP+ (although it may be possible on the newer modules).
There shouldn't be a performance difference between SFP+ or X2. However, check the capability of the line card / chassis backplane - if you have 16 10G ports, make sure the line card plugged into supports what you expect. Remember, if all ports are 10G running flat out, your total backplane for that line card is 160G, unless it's between servers in the same VLAN connected to the same blade.
The original discussion from https://supportforums.cisco.com/discussion/12736701/6807-xl-slots-issue
What’s your opinion about the Cisco 6807-XL Slots issue? Welcome to share with us here…
Aggregation Services Router (ASR) offers the industry’s highest density Carrier Ethernet system, with superior edge and aggregation performance.
The Cisco ASR 9000 series routers are the cornerstone of modern Edge and Carrier Ethernet networks.
Network traffic surges. Links saturate. Systems overload. Customer complaints flood the call centers. What’s going on? One possibility is a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack.
Cisco ASR 9000 virtual DDoS (vDDoS) protection defends your network against DDoS attacks by embedding Arbor Networks DDoS detection and mitigation technology into your Cisco network. You can automatically mitigate all types of DDoS attacks against your network or your customers’ networks. The solution protects your network against different types of DDoS attacks—such as volumetric, state exhaustion, and application layer attacks—helping to ensure its continued availability.
And you can also use the capability to provide DDoS protection services to your customers to increase your revenue and retain customers.
The ASR 9000 powers a virtual Peakflow Threat Management System on its Virtualized Services Module (VSM), so you can deliver DDoS protection services to market fast.
• Add distributed denial of service (DDoS) protection to Cisco ASR 9000 deployments with no extra rack space, power, or cooling requirements.
• Combine existing Arbor Threat Management System appliances with comprehensive vDDoS protection.
• Distribute DDoS protection to the network edge to avoid backhauling traffic across backbones to regional scrubbing centers.
• Deliver DDoS protection services faster on the ASR’s Virtualized Service Module (VSM).
• Mitigate attacks using Peakflow workflows to protect your availability and manage your Peakflow and vDDoS protection deployments.
Detection at the Edge
The ASR 9000 vDDoS protection solution unleashes the power of the Cisco ASR 9000 to stop DDoS attacks at the network edge. All before attacks can pass into your network and your customers’, consume critical bandwidth, and cause collateral damage. Normal traffic passes uninterrupted.
This approach eliminates the need to route attack traffic across your backbone to centralized scrubbing centers for cleansing. And it keeps your network edge from getting congested.
Unlike other DDoS solutions, Cisco ASR 9000 vDDoS protection is a virtualized, network-embedded DDoS solution. Detection and centralized management take place through the Arbor Networks Peakflow GUI and its workflows.
Increase the ROI of your existing Cisco ASR 9000 router deployment with virtual DDoS protection – of your own network and that of your customers in the form of new services – without needing any additional rack space, power, or cooling.
What You Buy
● Cisco ASR 9000 Series router (models: ASR 9006 Router, ASR 9010 Router, ASR 9912 Router, or ASR 9922 Router)
● Cisco ASR 9000 Series VSM
● Cisco ASR 9000 vDDoS Protection
● Arbor Networks Peakflow
● Support for all components
● Arbor Networks AIF subscription
● DDoS attack detection in as little as one second
● Up to 40 Gbps of mitigation through the ASR 9000 Series VSM
● Up to tens of terabytes per second of blacklisting
● Deployments scale for Tier 1 service provider networks
● Multitenant customer portal
…If you want to read more about the Cisco ASR 9000 vDDoS Protection Solution, such as DDoS Detection and Mitigation-How it works, models and Options available, you can refer to the Cisco’s page:
More Cisco Router Topics…
Need an affordable router? Never give up important network services? Which router will fit you? Uh, if you need an affordable router but don’t want to give up important network services such as security, you can take a look at the Cisco 800 Series Integrated Services Routers. These Cisco ISRs deliver the secure, reliable WAN connectivity your small offices and remote workers need.
Whether you need built-in voice, wireless, WAN optimization, or machine-to-machine communications, there’s an 800 Series router that’s cost-optimized for your requirement.
Different models in the series support different connection types to serve the specific needs of your small office. That could be xDSL, Wi-Fi, 4G LTE, Ethernet, fiber, or something else. You choose the models that best serve your situation.
Cisco 800 Series Integrated Services Routers--Benefits
• Get full-service branch routing at the right price
• Choose from a variety of wired, wireless, and cabled WAN connection types
• Set up and manage your small-office router in minutes
• Get software features consistent with your Cisco routers in other network segments
• Balance affordability with enterprise-grade security and reliability
Routing, switching, wireless, and intelligent IP network services are all bundled into one compact form factor that’s quick to install using the Cisco Configuration Professional Express tool. So you get lots of functionality with a single hardware investment. That also means there’s only one device per site to manage. And you can manage all of them centrally, if you like, from a data center with Cisco Prime Infrastructure and LiveAction applications.
The 800 ISRs provide comprehensive security–encryption, VPN, firewall, and cloud-based URL filtering–to help you safeguard your customers and data.
What does the Cisco Mobility Express Solution can do for you? It sounds good that Cisco Mobility Express Solution can easily help you deploy a wireless network with all Cisco advanced wireless innovations, using a simple, over-the-air configuration interface.
Nowadays, at your school, students might be using digital textbooks. And you might be required to provide a tablet or laptop for every student. Network connections will probably be wireless for the flexibility to use devices from anywhere on campus. Faculty and administrative personnel, too, rely on wireless networking for internal communications that are part of their jobs.
If your IT staff is tiny or nonexistent, how can you deploy and manage the wireless network? Especially if there are multiple schools scattered throughout the district to cover?
Cisco Mobility Express Solution targets just such situations. Mobility Express is built into Cisco Aironet 1850 and 1830 Series Access Points, which support 802.11ac Wave 2. Wave 2 is the very latest Wi-Fi standard, supporting gigabit speeds and protecting your Wi-Fi access point investment into the future.
- Ideal for schools needing up to 25 Wi-Fi access points
- Supports Cisco’s industry-leading features with no price premium
- Non-IT personnel can set up the wireless network in less than 10 minutes
- Three-step, wizard-based setup means no command lines to learn
- Delivers 802.11ac Wave 2, the latest and fastest wireless LAN technology on the market
- Bundles virtual WLAN controller management capabilities into the AP at no extra cost
- Cisco Connected Mobile Experience (CMX) can be added to boost customer engagement and give you presence-based analytics
Be Prepared for Wave 2 Client Devices--New 802.11ac Wave 2 client devices will soon appear on your network as students, faculty, and staff upgrade their smartphones and tablets.
Installing a Wave 2 Wi-Fi access point prepares you to deliver the most robust performance possible to them from day one. Turn to Cisco, a leader in helping advance the 802.11ac specifications, to help you stay ahead of the growing Wi-Fi traffic volumes that the new devices will generate.
1, 2, 3, and You’re Up
Supported on the Cisco Aironet 1850 and 1830 Series Access Points, the Mobility Express Solution lets you deploy your wireless LAN in less than 10 minutes. You can simultaneosly configure multiple Aironet access points with industry best-practice settings already enabled by default. Follow just three steps to configure your network:
- Connect to an 1850 or 1830 access point using any wireless device
- Use the Cisco WLAN Express Setup Wizard to configure multiple access points simultaneously. Your wireless network can contain a mix of Cisco Aironet 1850, 1830, 1600, 2600, 3600, 1700, 2700 and 3700 Series Access Points. You just need an 1850 or 1830 for the control function.
- Access the management dashboard – available via a browser or a mobile app – to operate, monitor, and troubleshoot your network.
When you want to access your Mobility Express dashboard from your mobile device, use the Cisco Wireless app, available at the Google Play Store and Apple App Store.
Using a virtual wireless LAN controller built right into the Cisco Aironet 1850 and 1830 access points, you can manage all your access points from a central console. You can easily manage up to 25 APs and 500 clients for each Mobility Express virtual controller you deploy. That means if you are a smaller venue, you can now deliver the same quality user experiences as large enterprises. There’s no price premium, and you don’t have to understand command-line interfaces.
There’s no longer the burden of having to manage autonomous APs one at a time, and no need to invest in a separate WLAN controller appliance for management.
To learn more about Cisco Mobility Express Solution, Cisco Aironet 1850 and 1830 Series Access Points, and 802.11ac Wave 2, visit: http://www.cisco.com/go/mobilityexpress.
Original from http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/enterprise-networks/mobility-express/at-a-glance-c45-734261.pdf
It is well known that Cisco ASA series supports IPv6 and it can be setup very easily and quickly. In the following part it focuses on a basic ASA setup for a native IPv6 network. As you will see, there are very few commands required to have your ASA firewall join an IPv6 ready network.
Here is a quick way to configure up your ASA firewall for IPv6 connectivity.
In this step we assign a link local address to the interface. There are 2 ways to assign a link local address to the interface
Configure the interface to generate a link local address from its MAC address.
interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 no shutdown nameif inside ipv6 enable
When you enter IPv6 enable, a link local address is automatically generated (this is based on your mac address).
Configure a link local address manually.
interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 no shutdown nameif inside ipv6 address <ipv6-address> link-local
Using the above command you can assign a link local address to the interface manually.
You can verify the link local address by executing the “show ipv6 interface” command.
Next we have to assign the global address to the interface. There are 2 ways of doing this.
You can manually assign a global IPv6 address to the interface.
interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 ipv6 address 2001::db8:2:3::1/64
With the IPv6 address command above, you are manually specifying the global IPv6 address for the interface. You can specify more than one IPv6 addresses for the interface using the command.
You can configure the interface to obtain the address automatically using stateless address autoconfiguration.
interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 ipv6 address autoconfig
Enabling stateless autoconfiguration on the interface configures IPv6 addresses based on prefixes received in Router Advertisement messages.
NOTE: There was a defect (CSCuq62164) in the ASA software that caused the ASA to not assign an address if it received a RA message with both the M and A flags set. This has been fixed in 9.3(1) release and hence we recommend this version if you intend to use SLAAC for configuring the address on ASA interfaces.
Verify IPv6 configuration.
show ipv6 interface inside is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is fe80::e6c7:22ff:fe84:eb2 Global unicast address(es): 2001:db8:2:3::1, subnet is 2001:db8:2:3::/64 Joined group address(es): ff02::1:ff00:1 ff02::1:ff84:eb2 ff02::2 ff02::1 ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds ND advertised retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.
Step 4 (Optional)
Suppress Router Advertisement messages on an interface.
By default, Router Advertisement messages are automatically sent in response to router solicitation messages. You may want to disable these messages on any interface for which you do not want the security appliance to supply the IPv6 prefix (for example, the outside interface).
Enter the following command to suppress Router Advertisement messages on an interface:
ipv6 nd suppress-ra
Neighbor discovery will continue to be operational even though RA suppression has been configured.
Define an IPv6 default route.
ipv6 route outside ::/0 next_hop_ipv6_addr
Using ::/0 is equivalent to “any”. The IPv6 route command is functionally similar to the IPv4 route.
Using the regular access-list command define the access-lists with IPv6 addresses in them so as to permit the required traffic to flow through the ASA.
access-list test permit tcp any host 2001:db8::203:a0ff:fed6:162d access-group test in interface outside
The above is permitting traffic to a specific server 2001:db8::203:a0ff:fed6:162d.
SECURING THE FIREWALL
If you plan to configure autoconfig for the IPv6 global address on the ASA, you should limit the amount of router advertisements (RA) to known routers in your network. This will help prevent the ASA from being auto configured from unknown routers.
access-list outsideACL permit icmp6 host fe80::21e:7bff:fe10:10c any router-advertisement access-list outsideACL deny icmp6 any any router-advertisement access-group outsideACL in interface outside interface GigabitEthernet 0/0 nameif outside security-level 0 ipv6 address autoconfig ipv6 enable
The above access-list when applied on the ASA will limit receiving router advertisements (RA) from only the router specified. All other RAs will be denied.
Configuring ASA to help autoconfigure IPv6 addresses on hosts behind the ASA
The hosts in the network behind the ASA might be configured to autoconfigure their IPv6 address. Dynamic address assignment happens in 2 ways on IPv6 networks. It could either be a stateful address assignment or stateless address assignment.
Stateful dynamic address assignment
For stateful address assignment, a DHCPv6 server needs to be configured on the network that can assign address to hosts upon request. ASA currently does not have the ability to host a DHCPv6 server on its interfaces. But the ASA can act as a DHCPv6 relay agent. In order to enable stateful dynamic address assignment to hosts behind the ASA, the DHCPv6 relay agent needs to be configured on the ASA.
To configure the DHCPv6 relay agent the following configuration is needed:
ipv6 dhcprelay server 2001:db8:c18:6:a8bb:ccff:fe03:2701 ipv6 dhcprelay enable inside
The first command specifies the address of a DHCPv6 server to which the DHCP requests are forwarded. The command also accepts an optional interface name that specifies the output interface for the destination. The second command enables DHCP relay on an interface. When DHCP relay is enabled on an interface, all the DHCP requests coming on that interface get forwarded to the configured DHCP server.
Stateless dynamic address assignment
In Stateless Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) the client picks up its own address based on the prefix being advertised by the ASA. The prefix is advertised by means of an IPv6 router advertisement. ASA sends out IPv6 router advertisements by default from any interface on which a global IPv6 address is configured. Additionally, a DHCPv6 relay agent can be configured to point to a DHCPv6 server that can advertise a DNS server address and a domain name only.
IPv6 Prefix delegation
ASA does not support IPv6 prefix delegation yet. If the network behind the ASA requires to be assigned IPv6 addresses based on the prefix delegated by a delegation router, then we need to place an ASA between the provider edge (PE) router and the IPv6 capable customer premise router. The ASA must be in transparent mode. This way the ASA protects the entire IPv6 network, including the infrastructure router, on the customer premises. All ICMP6 traffic must be permitted on the ASA running in transparent mode.
The following must be configured on the ASA:
firewall transparent interface BVI1 no ip address ipv6 enable interface GigabitEthernet0/0 nameif outside bridge-group 1 security-level 0 interface GigabitEthernet0/1 nameif inside bridge-group 1 security-level 100 access-list permit_icmp6 extended permit icmp6 any6 any6 access-group permit_icmp6 global
This example uses a link-local IPv6 address on the BVI interface. You can also configure an explicit IPv6 address for in-band management purposes.
The original article was shared from https://supportforums.cisco.com/document/61451/cisco-asa-ipv6-quick-start
More Cisco Firewall & Network Security Topics you can read here...http://blog.router-switch.com/category/reviews/cisco-firewalls-security/
There are 2 methods of booting and running IOS XE software in 3850 switch/stack.
By default, the switches are shipped in Install mode.
Bundle mode: Bundle mode is where we boot the switch/stack using the .bin file. This is the traditional method of booting the switch where the switch extracts the .bin file to the RAM of the switch and run from there.
Install Mode: Install mode is where we pre-extract the .bin file in the flash and boot the witch/stack using the packages.conf file created during the extraction.
Install mode is the recommended mode of running the switch. Not all features may be available in this Bundle mode
IOS XE installation and software rollback are supported only when the switch is running in “Install” mode. (i.e.: The commands “software install” and “software rollback”.)
Use “software expand” command to convert the switch into Install mode from Bundle mode. The steps are mentioned below.
Upgrading a stand-alone switch:
The packages and provisioning file used to boot in installed mode must reside in the flash.
Booting in installed mode from usbflash0: or TFTP is not supported.
Booting a bundle in bundle mode is just like booting a monolithic IOS image.
For example: boot flash:cat3k_caa-universalk9.SSA.03.08.83.EMD.150-8.83.EMD.bin
Hence, the boot variable should not be pointing to the .bin file. If so, the switch will boot in Bundle mode. The boot variable should be pointing to the “packages.conf” file in order for the switch to boot in Install mode.
Before doing the upgrade, we need to check the mode in which the switch is currently booted in.
C3850#show version | begin Switch Port
Switch Ports Model SW Version SW Image Mode
------ ----- ----- ---------- ---------- ----
* 1 32 WS-C3850-24T 03.03.01SE cat3k_caa-universalk9 INSTALL •ß Install mode
Upgrading from Install mode:
By default, switches are shipped in Install mode.
In order to upgrade the switch from Install mode, please follow the below-mentioned procedure.
- •1. Download the new image from the TFTP server to the flash / USB on the switch. (optional)
Copy tftp: flash:
Copy tftp: usbflash0:
- •2. Use the command “software install” to install the newly downloaded image (or) the image present in the network.
C3850-01#software install file <source>:<filename.bin> new
The “new” keyword is used so that that the post-install package set should contain only the packages being installed. The old packages file will be renamed for future rollback purpose. Without this option, the post-install package set is a merged set of the currently installed software and the new packages being installed.
The source can be
- flash: or usbflash0: (or a sub-directory of these)
- The network via tftp, ftp or http
NOTE: When performing ‘software install’ on a switch with a source bundle that resides in the network, the source bundle is first downloaded to RAM on switch. The source bundle is deleted from RAM when the operation completes.
Refer to the configuration guide to know about the other optional parameters of this command,
Directory of flash:/
29511 -rwx 220716072 Oct 15 2012 12:57:59 +00:00 cat3k_caa-universalk9.SSA.03.08.88.EMP.150-8.88.EMP.bin
C3850#software install file flash:cat3k_caa-universalk9.SSA.03.08.88.EMP.150-8.88.EMP.bin
[1 ]: Creating pending provisioning file
[1 ]: Finished installing software. New software will load on reboot.
[1 ]: Committing provisioning file
[1 ]: Do you want to proceed with reload? [yes/no]: n
Once the installation is completed, reload the switch and it will boot into the newly installed IOS XE image.
From Bundle mode:
If the switch is currently running in “Bundle” mode, then we need to use the “software expand” command to convert the switch into the Install mode first and then install the new IOS XE.
The ‘software expand’ exec command is used to extract the package files and the provisioning file (packages.conf) from a source bundle (possibly the running bundle) and copy them to the specified destination directory in a local storage device.
This command will typically be used to convert from the bundle running mode to the installed running mode.
NOTE: When performing ‘software expand’ on a switch with a source bundle that resides in local storage, the source bundle is first copied to the corresponding local storage device on the switch. The source bundle used for the expand operation is left intact after it is expanded.
NOTE: When performing ‘software expand’ on a switch with a source bundle that resides in the network, the source bundle is first downloaded to RAM of the switch. The source bundle is deleted from RAM on the switch when the operation completes.
This example uses the following steps to prepare a switch for booting in installed mode, i.e., booting a package provisioning file (packages.conf)
- Boot in bundle mode using ‘boot flash:<bundle name>’
Can also boot from usbflash0: or via tftp
- Use the ‘software clean file flash:’ command to remove any unused package, bundle and provisioning files from flash:
- Use the ‘software expand running to flash:’ command to expand the running bundle to flash:
- Reload the switch
- Boot the installed packages using ‘boot flash:packages.conf’
The 'software rollback' exec command can be used to revert to a previous version of the installed software package set (i.e., an older packages.conf file)
This functionality relies on the existence of one or more 'rollback provisioning files’ in flash:, along with all of the .pkg files listed in the rollback provisioning file(s)
- The rollback provisioning files are visible in flash: as packages.conf.00-, packages.conf.01-, etc.
- packages.conf.00- is a snapshot of the packages.conf file as it looked prior to the last installation operation
- packages.conf.01- is a snapshot of the packages.conf file as it looked two installations ago
- And so on
When the 'software rollback' command is used, packages.conf.00- becomes packages.conf. packages.conf.01- becomes packages.conf.00-. And so on
Note: If the 'software clean' command is used, future attempts to do a software rollback are likely to fail
In the last article we talked the “Nine Switch Commands Every Cisco Network Engineer Needs to Know”. For Cisco or many other vendors, new commands are introduced at each progressive level of system verification. Do you know what commands you should use to verify a network switch’s status and operation? In this article we will look at five essential commands that are used to verify a network switch’s status and operation. They are:
- show cdp neighbors
Available on almost all operating system platforms, including Cisco IOS, the ping command is used to verify the reachability of a targeted device. It does this by sending an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo message to the target; if the target receives the message (and is not configured to drop it), it responds to the initial sender with an ICMP echo-reply message. In a perfect world, with no firewalls, and all devices configured to respond to these messages, the ping command would work perfectly. However, many devices (or devices en route, like firewalls) are purposely configured to ignore ICMP echo messages automatically, in order to hide their existence and avoid being targeted by attackers. In these cases, engineers must decide whether the unsuccessful ping is a real problem or a purposeful part of a network’s design.
TIP: As a general rule, don’t worry about devices that are outside your organization’s control.
Cisco IOS also has an extended version of the ping command that allows for more complex command configurations. For example, an engineer has the ability to control the source IP used (which makes sense when being run from a router configured with multiple IP addresses), the size of the messages being sent, and the content of the messages, among other options.
The traceroute command is typically used along with the ping command to further determine the reachability of a destination. traceroute works a bit differently from ping; instead of simply sending a message to the destination directly, it aims to find the path from the source to the target destination. It does this by using either ICMP echo messages on Windows or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) probe messages on Linux and Cisco IOS. It figures out the path by taking advantage of the IP Time to Live (TTL) field.
It’s important to understand what the TTL field does. In normal circumstances, the TTL is used as a loop-prevention mechanism; it works by being set to a number which is then decremented at every respective IP “’hop.” If the TTL reaches a device and is decremented to 0, the packet is dropped and an ICMP “destination unreachable” message is sent back to the source device. When used by the traceroute command, the TTL finds each of the hops in the path between the source and the destination:
- Initially the source sends an ICMP or UDP message to the destination with a TTL of1.
- When the packet reaches the first hop, the TTL is decremented to 0; the device drops the packet and sends back an ICMP “destination unreachable” message.
- To find the second hop, the TTL is set to 2, for the third hop it’s set to 3, and so on; typically three packets are sent for each step toward the destination (three with a TTL set to 1, three with a TTL set to 2, and so on).
- These ICMP “destination unreachable” messages are received by the runningtraceroute command and interpreted into a readable output showing the path toward the destination.
As with the ping command, many organizations block the ICMP echo messages and some of the UDP messages; and the output should be read with this fact in mind.
The traceroute command on Cisco IOS is extended in the same way as the ping command variant that allows for extended command configurations. The options offered by traceroutemirror most of the options available in an extended ping.
The telnet command has been around for a long time, allowing users to manage devices via a command-line interface. Its very simple operation provides an unsecured Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) session between the source and destination. Characters entered on the source are immediately relayed to the destination, providing an experience on Cisco IOS (and Linux) that is the same as if the user were directly connected into the device locally.
A key term to take from this description is unsecured, the username and login information are sent between the source and destination in clear text.
The telnet command uses TCP port 23.
The ssh (secure shell) command works similarly to the telnet command but creates a secure communications channel between source and destination. This means that the username and password are not sent in clear text and are protected (at least to some level) from anyone listening in on the conversation.
The ssh command uses TCP port 22.
show cdp neighbors
The show cdp neighbors command is used on a Cisco IOS device to view neighboring devices discovered by the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). CDP is a Cisco proprietary protocol used for Layer 2 discovery; it has the ability to discover all other supporting CDP devices on a shared segment. (It doesn’t work across Layer 3 devices.) The following example shows some typical output of this command:
R1#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater, P - Phone, D - Remote, C - CVTA, M - Two-port Mac Relay Device ID Local Intrfce Holdtme Capability Platform Port ID R2 Fas 0/0 172 R 7206VXR Fas 0/0 R1#
In this example, we learn that the remote device (R2) is connected via R1’s FastEthernet0/0 interface and is connected to R2’s FastEthernet0/0 interface, and R2 is a Cisco 7206VXR router. This information is very helpful when mapping out unfamiliar networks. It can also be used to help ensure that a device is connected to the correct remote device(s) on the correct interface; as engineers often must configure devices remotely, this command is useful when installing new equipment, to ensure that physical interfaces are connected to the appropriate networks.
Keep in mind that CDP is a proprietary protocol and will not work to discover most other non-Cisco devices; this command is enabled by default on Cisco devices. A standards-based alternative to CDP is the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)—IEEE 802.1AB, which is supported by many other vendors, but is not enabled by default on Cisco devices.
Reference Article from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2420613