Cisco provides a network that can securely and reliably handle all types of traffic, throughout the entire network, over virtually any media, while providing consistent service delivery to all users.
Cisco is proud of being a recognized worldwide leader in networking. Now, when the technology industry is going through a period of dramatic change, it remains the market leader in multiple areas, such as routing and switching, unified communications, mobility, and security. The company helped catalyze the industry's move toward IP, and, now that it is fully under way, Cisco is at the center of fundamental changes in the way the world communicates.
Innovation, something indispensable, helps Cisco and famous companies win customers’ praise. And this reputation is caused in part by the Cisco development strategy of "build, partner, and acquire." Beyond corporate innovation, Cisco also helps to shape innovation throughout the industry by actively participating in virtually every group concerned with networking standards.
To be simple, as a company whose own success depends on its network systems, Cisco fully understands this relationship. In today's environment of mergers, acquisitions, and global expansion, businesses now require network systems that enable technology innovation and business-critical services not only at the headquarters, but across geographically disparate corporate campuses, throughout the branches, and out to remote workers. Cisco can provide an end-to-end network, composed of systems specifically designed to address the unique needs of each place in the network, connected by a common infrastructure and a common operating system and manageable from a central location as a single, cohesive entity.
Because Cisco envisions the network as a whole, it designs and develops products, technologies, and solutions that provide business benefits across the entire network. Consider, for example, the enablement of advanced technologies. Advanced technologies, such as voice over IP (VoIP), require the support of intelligent network services. Although many networking vendors support these services, the level and methods of support often vary from one device to another and from one place in the network to another, making configuration and interoperation difficult. With Cisco network systems, intelligent network services, such as quality of service (QoS) and encryption, are consistently supported and preserved across the entire network, enabling the same secure and high-quality service delivery regardless of whether the user is at headquarters or in a local branch.
Cisco applies this same broad view to network management, providing tools to manage the network as a whole. For example, the Cisco integrated services routers use 802.1ag to provide end-to-end service manageability. Another example is the Cisco Network Application Analysis (NAPA) Solution, which also takes a holistic approach to management, providing an end-to-end view as it monitors and analyzes the entire network to optimize the relationship between application performance and network resources.
Moreover, Cisco understands the relationship between all elements of the network: that an improvement in management or security capabilities can often mean a decrease in performance. Cisco is constantly looking for innovative ways to eliminate these types of tradeoffs. One such innovation is the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 32 Programmable Intelligent Services Accelerator (PISA), which eliminates the tradeoff by providing hardware acceleration of intelligent services, such as stateful application intelligence and day-zero security services, at multigigabit speeds.
In most cases, the network of a company or organization is not a single island. It is likely made up of multiple networks, including one or more campuses, some number of branches, remote teleworkers, and one or more data centers, all connected through a WAN or MAN. These businesses and organizations require solutions that work across the entire network, throughout all "places in the network."
Cisco understands and addresses the unique requirements of each place in the network:
• Campus: Market factors are causing a shift in corporate structures. Reduced time to market translates to a greater need for interaction throughout a company. And as these companies become more adept and more dependent on technologies for this interaction, the network must provide a platform that enables and promotes enhanced communication and collaboration.
Cisco provides a platform designed for collaboration with the Campus Communication Fabric, which enables application proficiency, secure multimedia communications, improved productivity and innovation, business continuity, and efficient operations over a flexible infrastructure.
• Branch/WAN: Historically, branch users have not been given the same priority as users at headquarters, enduring less-than-optimal response times, receiving a subset of services, and experiencing downtimes that are not tolerated at headquarters. But this is changing. Because of the increased number of acquisitions and mergers, along with the focus on local presence and global expansion, remote office workers have gained significant importance in the equation for business success. Today's branch users require the same consistent delivery of services and applications as headquarters users.
Cisco gives branch users an equal status with the Empowered Branch, which integrates the widest set of services and applications while optimizing their interoperability and performance for a consistent branch experience. At the WAN headend, Cisco offers services aggregation solutions that combine virtualized services integration, bandwidth optimization, and application intelligence to provide secure, intelligent routing of applications across the enterprise WAN.
• Data center: The rapid proliferation of new applications combined with the increased complexity of these applications mean that IT managers require data center architectures that are more resilient, more adaptable, more manageable, and capable of serving users across geographically dispersed locations.
Cisco data center solutions are built on the principles of consolidation, virtualization, and automation to provide the security, availability, manageability, and optimized application delivery that enable superior service delivery and application performance.
Network Systems Components You Need to Know
When you look closer into each of these network systems, you find components that are industry leaders in their own right. Cisco provides one of the most robust, intelligent lines of integrated services routers, along with one of the most comprehensive, feature-rich portfolios of network switches.
Cisco routers allow organizations to build a foundation for an intelligent, self-defending network, featuring best-in-class security services and routing technologies for a low total cost of ownership and a high return on investment. These routers offer:
For the branch, Cisco provides a portfolio of routers designed for secure wire-speed delivery of concurrent wireless, data, voice, and video services with superior investment protection. Cisco integrated services routers embed security, mobility, LAN switching, and voice services inside the router as a single resilient system for ease of deployment, simplified management, and lower operating costs. They also support leading-edge WAN technologies, such as:
In addition to convenience, the Cisco integrated services routers provide investment protection. The integrated design enables a 70 percent reduction in operational expenses when compared to deploying multiple overlaid components in a branch to achieve the same services. Additionally, the modular design of the Cisco integrated services routers allows for easy integration of new services as well as the expansion of existing ones.
At the headend, Cisco offers an extensive WAN and MAN aggregation platform portfolio, which also provides a comprehensive set of highly secure, concurrent, and integrated services. Cisco services aggregation routers provide exceptional performance with aggregation speeds of up to 2 Mpps and support for as many as 16,000 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) sessions and 5000 VPN sessions per chassis. For optimization, these routers also support Network-Based Application Recognition for application optimization and OER. To help ensure the security of your network, these routers include support for IP Security (IPsec) encryption, an integrated stateful firewall, and support for identity-based access control.
Cisco offers a comprehensive portfolio of intelligent network switches, with a continuously expanding suite of intelligent services and advanced technologies to strengthen, simplify, and extend the value of the network infrastructure. As a leader in switching technology innovation, Cisco is constantly developing new ways to enable its customers to get more from their network infrastructure. Many Cisco innovations have evolved into industry standards, including Cisco EtherChannel (now the 802.3AD standard), Power over Ethernet (now the 802.3af standard), Multiple Instance Spanning Tree (now the 802.1s standard), and Interswitch Link (now the 802.1q standard).
Cisco Catalyst switches are based on a superior design that employs a centralized architecture, which simplifies expansion and upgrades. They also use application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology, which is better suited than merchant silicon (used by many other switch vendors) for the delivery of advanced features.
Additionally, Cisco Catalyst switches provide:
• Superior service delivery from the wiring closet to the core, from the data center to the WAN edge with 10/100/1000 to the desktop, Fast Ethernet through 10 Gigabit Ethernet connections, and predictable wire-rate switching performance (even with QoS enabled)
• High level of availability with In-Service Software Upgrade (ISSU) and hot-swappable modules, which enable easy upgrades without service interruption, and nonstop forwarding with stateful switchover (NSF/SSO), which reduces the mean time to repair (MTTR) by allowing extremely fast supervisor switchover that is virtually transparent
• Exceptional scalability through options such as virtualization, which provides for the centralization of services and security policies while preserving the high-availability, manageability, security, and scalability benefits of the existing campus design (centralized management and security), and Power over Ethernet, which simplifies the addition of new endpoints
• Superior security with integrated support for identity-based access control and Cisco Catalyst integrated security features, as well as Cisco firewall and intrusion detection modules
For your business growth and success, this network should be a Cisco network. When you join the intelligent, resilient routing offered by the Cisco routing portfolio with the innovative high-performance switching offered by Cisco Catalyst switches; connect them through reliable, scalable Cisco IOS Software innovation; and manage them with the automated, integrated management offered by the Cisco network management portfolio, the result is a highly available, adaptable infrastructure that delivers secure, pervasive services through a cohesive network platform upon which you can deploy technology solutions that address today's business challenges and enable tomorrow's business success.
Having Cisco network systems throughout your network helps to accelerate deployment of new technologies, reduce the learning curve in your IT staff, protect the integrity of your network and the data that crosses it, and enables your users to achieve higher levels of productivity and responsiveness.
Add to this Cisco industry leadership, financial stability, commitment to innovation, and dedication to customers, and it is clear that Cisco is an excellent choice for your network systems: yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
Right, interview is so common for us, but the more important is some famous companies' special interview. If you need to finish a interview like CISCO'S, how will you answer these questions as follows:
1) What are the names of your technical round interviewers
2) Do you know my name?
3) Tell me about yourself, your family background... so on..
4) What are you looking for in Cisco” or what attracts you or why do you want to join cisco.
5) Tell me a situation/ issue where you identified a problem on your own, and drove to resolve it.
6) Tell about most difficult team project u have worked on.
7) What type of work environment is suitable and which environment you hate/is frustrating?
8) Tell about the mistake you learned from
9) Tell about accomplishment you are proud of...
10) what have you learnt in 4 years of your BTech.
11) Give an example of biggest/most demanding team leading or you have talked about something to a group like given a presentation or seminar etc..
12) Describe a situation where you and your partner/professor had a conflicting view, but you were still able to get across your point or how did u get around obstacles that prevented you from completing the task/project.
13) Tell a situation in which you took the lead without being asked to do so and why? or you saw some opportunity which came suddenly and how did u react? or you found some your results or your work which were not up to the mark, what did u do to rectify? or done more than what was required? Or situations in which you found the job could be done much easier and others weren’t following it..? Or did some job which doesn’t come under your job role/description but was beneficial?
14) Tell me about your values in your life.
15) Tell us what you know about our company.
16) Tell me some of your strengths and weaknesses..
17) Interested in doing MS?
And so it begins. After a bleak summer that included 6,500 job cuts, Cisco Systems (CSCO) is working hard to raise its voice and rally partners. Channel Chief Edison Peres has issued a video blog to crystallize the company’s partner strategy. Andrew Sage, Cisco’s VP, Partner Led, is set to provide strategy updates soon. And CEO John Chambers (pictured) recently rallied the Cisco sales force to further support partners. All of the chatter includes Cisco executives talking about the “Next Cisco.” But has the Next Cisco really arrived?
In the video blog, Peres reinforces the fact that 80 percent of sales involve partners:
As expected, Cisco has also simplified its messaging. Instead of focusing on roughly 50 markets, Cisco is zeroing in on five opportunities:
- Core (routing and switching)/Cisco Routers & Cisco Switches
- Data center/virtualization
- Architectures for business transformation
Some folks on Wall Street are embracing Cisco’s streamlined focus. Auriga USA, an institutional broker, predicts that Cisco can grow faster than rivals over the next years while taking market share from Hewlett-Packard and Juniper Networks, according to Tech Trader Daily,
Still, let’s not forget that Cisco stumbled badly only a few months ago. First, the company essentially said “all is well” during Cisco Partner Summit (Feb. 28-March 3, 2011). But by April, Chambers conceded that Cisco had lost its focus. Cisco soon killed the Flip video camera. And by August 2011, Cisco cut roughly 6,500 positions.
But here’s where things get extra interesting. Sometime around the time Cisco started layoffs, Wall Street began to think that Cisco was in better shape than some of its rivals. And more recently, Hewlett-Packard’s decision to potentially sell or spin-off its PC division may have triggered some distractions within the halls of HP… potentially helping Cisco to gain some ground in the server market (though servers are not part of HP’s potential PC spin-off plan).
Yes, Cisco still has massive market share in switching and routing. And folks like Peres and Sage have the channel’s respect. But here’s one remaining riddle: How exactly does Sage’s role differ from Peres’s role? The VAR Guy expects to gain more answers and insights within the next few days…
With a Cisco Unified IP Phone, you can help your business benefit from the productivity-building capabilities of next-generation communications and collaboration, which now includes Multimedia Video and Voice Communication. These industry-leading IP endpoints are designed to maximize network powered communications and collaboration.
Take full advantage of converged voice and data networks while retaining the convenience and user-friendliness you expect from a business phone. Cisco Unified IP Phones can help improve productivity by meeting the needs of users throughout your organization. Advanced media endpoints in this innovative suite of Cisco Unified IP Phones enhance the end-user experience.
Cisco IP Phone provides a comprehensive portfolio of wired and wireless IP handsets from basic lobby phones up to video enabled touch screen executive models. Models with the Cisco proprietary protocols are designed for deployment with a Cisco call processing server such as Callmanager or a Callmanager Express router. Phones with the SIP protocol can be configured to work with open source systems supporting the SIP protocol.
Have you used a Cisco IP Phone? Are you clear about Cisco IP Phones VOIP? Which one is the most popular Cisco IP Phone? What does Cisco Unified IP Phone bring to you? What benefit do you get from Cisco IP Phone? If these questions you can answer quickly? Congratulations, you en joy what Cisco IP Phones take for you…
To get know about some hot Cisco IP Phone types
- Come equipped with expanded memory to support graphics-intensive applications and value-added services.
- Power options, including a choice of PoE, Cisco Inline Power, or local power through an optional power adaptor.
- High-resolution colour displays, touch screen functions, and Gigabit Ethernet switch ports for fast communications access.
- Support for the Cisco Unified Video Advantage and VT Camera III application for video communications.
Tips: The exact Cisco IP Unified IP Phone 7900 series, including CP-7911G, CP-7911G-CH1, CP-7906G, CP-7931G, CP-7937G, etc. The key features of Cisco IP Phone 7900 series you can visit routerswitch.com.
- Large, backlit, vibrant high-resolution fully-adjustable color display enhances user experience with easy viewing.
- Delivers rich multimedia communications and advanced features in a design that is both user- and eco-friendly.
- The phones support the optional Cisco Unified Video Advantage and VT Camera III application for video communications.
- High-definition voice (HD voice) provides superior audio performance with HD voice headset, handset, and speaker support.
Cisco Unified IP Phone 9900 Series
- Portfolio of advanced collaborative media endpoints.
- Ideal for knowledge professionals, administrative staff, managers and executive offices.
- Includes Bluetooth, USB integration, higher-resolution colour displays, high-def voice (HD voice) and interactive business video support on all models with touch screen access and Wi-Fi integration on selected models.
- Interactive, high-performance business video accelerates decision making.
To select the appropriate switch for a layer in a particular network, you need to have specifications that detail the target traffic flows, user communities, data servers, and data storage servers. Company needs a network that can meet evolving requirements.
Traffic flow analysis is the process of measuring the bandwidth usage on a network and analysing the data for the purpose of performance tuning, capacity planning, and making hardware improvement decisions.
Network switches come in different sizes, features and functions, choosing a switch to match a particular network sometimes constitute a daunting task.
Consider what will happen if the HR or HQ department grows by five employees or more’ A solid network plan includes the rate of personnel growth over the past five years to be able to anticipate the future growth. With that in mind, you would want to purchase a switch that can accommodate more than 24 ports, such as stackable or modular switches that can scale.
When selecting a switch for the* access, **distribution, or ***core layer, consider the ability of the switch to support the port density, forwarding rates, and bandwidth aggregation requirements of your network.
Access layer switches facilitate the connection of end node devices to the network e.g. PC, Modems, IP phone, Printers etc. For this reason, they need to support features such as port security, VLANs, Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet, PoE(power over Internet, and link aggregation. Port security allows the switch to decide how many or what type of devices are permitted to connect to the switch. This is where most Cisco comes in, they all support port layer security. Most renowned network administrator knows this is the first line of defence.
Distribution Layer switches plays a very important role on the network. They collect the data from all the access layer switches and forward it to the core layer switches. Traffic that is generated at Layer 2 on a switched network needs to be managed, or segmented into VLANs, Distribution layer switches provides the inter-VLAN routing functions so that one VLAN can communicate with another on the network.
Distribution layer switches provides advanced security policies that can be applied to network traffic using Access Control Lists (ACL). This type of security allows the switch to prevent certain types of traffic and permit others. ACLs also allow you to control, which network devices can communicate on the network.
Core layer switches: These types of switches at the core layer of a topology, which is the high-speed backbone of the network and requires switches that can handle very high forwarding rates. The switch that operates in this area also needs to support link aggregation (10GbE connections which is currently the fastest available Ethernet connectivity.) to ensure adequate bandwidth coming into the core from the distribution layer switches.
Also, core layer switches support additional hardware redundancy features like redundant power supplies that can be swapped while the switch continues to operate. Because of the high workload carried by core layer switches, they tend to operate hotter than access or distribution layer switches, so they should have more sophisticated cooling options. Many true, core layer-capable switches have the ability to swap cooling fans without having to turn the switch off.
For example, it would be disruptive to shut down a switch at the core layer to change a power supply or a fan in the middle of the day when the network usage is at its Peak. To perform a hardware replacement, you could expect to have at least a 10 to 15 minute network shutdown, and that is if you are very fast at performing the maintenance. In more realistic circumstances, the switch could be down for 30 to 45 minutes or more, which most likely is not acceptable. With hot-swappable hardware, there is no downtime during switch maintenance.
Another characteristic one needs to put into consideration is port speed, which at times depend on performance requirements, choosing between fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet Switch Ports.
Fast Ethernet allows up to 100 Mb/s of traffic per switch port while Gigabit Ethernet allows up to 1000 Mb/s of traffic per switch port. Fast Ethernet is adequate for IP telephony and data traffic on most business networks; however, performance is slower than Gigabit Ethernet ports..
Port density is the number of ports available on a single switch. Fixed configuration switches support up to 48 ports on a single device, with options for up to four additional ports.
High port densities allow for better use of space and power when both are in limited supply. If you have two switches that each contain 24 ports, you would be able to support up to 46 devices, because you lose at least one port per switch to connect each switch to the rest of the network. In addition, two power outlets are required. On the other hand, if you have a single 48-port switch, 47 devices can be supported, with only one port used to connect the switch to the rest of the network, and only one power outlet needed to accommodate the single switch.
Modular switches can support very high port densities through the addition of multiple switch port line cards, as shown in the figure. For example, the Cisco Catalyst 6500 switch can support in excess of 1,000 switch ports on a single device.
Switches have different processing capabilities at the rate in which they process data per second. Processing and forwarding data rates are very important when selecting a switch, the lower the processing, the slower the forwarding this results to the switch unable to accommodate full wire-speed communication across all its ports. A normal fast Ethernet port attains a 100Mb/s , while Gigabit Ethernet does 1000Mb/s.
For example, a 48-port gigabit switch operating at full wire speed generates 48 Gb/s of traffic. If the switch only supports a forwarding rate of 32 Gb/s, it cannot run at full wire speed across all ports simultaneously.
The more ports you have on a switch to support bandwidth aggregation, the more speed you have on your network traffic,. e.g. , consider a Gigabit Ethernet port, which carries up to 1 Gb/s of traffic in a network. If you have a 24-port switch, with all its ports capable of running at gigabit speeds, you could generate up to 24 Gb/s of network traffic. If the switch is connected to the rest of the network by a single network cable, it can only forward 1 Gb/s of the data to the rest of that network. Due to the contention for bandwidth, the data would forward more slowly. That results in 1 out of 24 wire speed available to each of the 24 devices connected to the switch.
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
Another characteristic you consider when choosing a switch is Power over Ethernet (PoE). This is the ability of the switch to deliver power to a device over the existing Ethernet cabling. IP phones and some wireless access points can use this feature, you can be able to install them anywhere you can run an Ethernet cable.
More tips: If you are looking for more info of Cisco switches, you can visit router-switch.com----Cisco switches: Cisco Catalyst 2960, Cisco Catalyst 3560,Cisco 3750, Cisco 4500, Cisco 6500 series, etc...
The Cisco 3750 switch has contributed greatly to Cisco's success in the networking hardware market. Its features provide efficient and reliable network switching services. You can find a pre-owned 3750 model at a good price, and if you do buy a pre-owned Cisco 3750 switch, you may need to change the password before you are able configure it to work on your network. Fortunately, Cisco has provided a built-in procedure that allows you to change the password.
Things You'll Need
Cisco 3750 switch and serial cable
Computer with terminal emulation software
How to Change the Password on a Catalyst 3750 Switch？
1. Connect your computer to the 3750 switch using the blue serial cable that typically comes with it. Connect the 9-pin d-shell connector to your computer's serial port, and connect the RJ-45 connector to the switch's console port.
2. Configure a terminal session to the switch. Power up your computer, open a terminal emulator application, and configure a terminal session with the following settings:
1 stop bit
8 data bits
Xon/Xoff flow control
Save the configuration with a name that you can recognize later.
3. Hold down the "Mode" button on the left front of the Cisco 3750 switch, and plug in the power cable. Five seconds after the Stat LED goes off, release the "Mode" button. The SYST LED should start to blink amber.
4. At the command prompt, issue the following commands to the switch to prepare it for the reset procedure, and rename the current configuration file:
rename flash:config.text flash:config.old
5. Boot the 3750 switch by issuing the "boot" command and pressing "Enter." At the "System Configuration Dialog" prompt, answer "n" and press "Enter" twice. This should display the "Switch>" prompt.
6. Issue the "en" command at the prompt, and press "Enter." You should see the prompt change from "Switch>" to "Switch#." Rename the configuration file with the following command:
rename flash:config.old flash:config.text (press "Enter")
Press "Enter" to accept the destination filename default.
7. Copy the configuration file into the 3750 memory with the following command:
copy flash:config.text system:running-config
Press "Enter" when prompted for a destination filename to accept the default.
8. eate new passwords for the 3750 switch with the following commands:
enable secret spswd (spswd = your new secret password)
enable password enpswd (enpswd = your new enable password)
line vty 0 15
password tpswd (tpswd = your new terminal password)
line con 0
password cpswd (cpswd = your new console password)
The 3750 will issue a "Building Configuration" message. When you see the [OK] message at the Sw1# prompt, you have completed the password change for the Cisco 3750 switch.
Tips: More info of Cisco 3750 switches you can visit at cisco.com
Cisco IOS software is installed in the manageable Cisco switches for better LAN management. It delivers network services and enabled networked applications. The Cisco IOS has a command line interface that helps users to execute the Cisco IOS commands.
Cisco Switch Commands
The Cisco switch IOS has different EXEC modes with distinctive prompts. These modes execute different Cisco switch commands. Each mode has a set of specific commands.
The fundamentals of the Cisco IOS User Interface are as follows:
- Uses a command line interface
- Operations vary on different series of switches
- Type or paste entries in the console command modes
- Enter key instructs device to parse and execute the commands
- Two primary EXEC modes are user mode and privileged mode
- Command modes have distinctive prompts
Cisco IOS Software Exec
There are two main EXEC modes for entering the Cisco switch commands:
- Limited switch examination
- Command prompt on the switch is switch
- Detailed switch examination
- Enables configuration and debugging
- Prerequisites for other configuration modes
- Command prompt on the router is switches#
Cisco Telnet Commands
There are two primary ways to access a Cisco manageable switch to use command line interface.
- Out of band Console connection
- Via Ethernet through Telnet
Telnet is a utility used for remotely logging into a device. To telnet a Cisco IOS switch from a computer, type the following command on the CMD computer’s terminal:
Telnet IP address of the switch
Just like: Telnet 192.168.0.253
Cisco Catalyst 1900 Switch Commands
The following are some basic Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch commands:
- Show running-config: This command displays the memory status of the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch
- Show interfaces: This command displays detailed information about all the interfaces of Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch.
- Show interfaces Ethernet 0/1: This command displays detailed information about a specific 10baseT Ethernet interface of the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch
- Show interfaces Fast Ethernet 0/26: This command displays the detailed information about a specific 100baseT Fast Ethernet interface of the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch
- Show ip: This command displays the ip configuration of the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch
- Show Mac-address-table: This command displays the Mac addresses of the devices that are currently connected to the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch.
- Show Mac-address-table security: This command displays the address table size and the addressing security of each interface of the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch.
- Show VLAN: This command displays the status of current VLANs enabled on the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch.
- Show VLAN-membership: This command displays the VLAN membership of all the ports on the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch.
- Show Spantree 1: This command displays the complete information about the spanning tree protocol 1 that is enabled by default on the Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch.
- Copy nvram tftp: //host/dst_file: This command sends the configuration to a TFTP server.
- Copy tftp: //host/src_file nvram: This command downloads the configuration from a TFTP server.
- Delete nvram: This command resets the system configuration to factory defaults.
Show Cisco Switch Commands
Here are some show commands of Cisco switches:
- Show version: This command displays the hardware and software status of the Cisco switch
- Show flash: This command displays the files and directories in the flash of the Cisco switch
- Show interfaces: This command displays the detailed information about all the interfaces of the Cisco switch
- Show interfaces fast Ethernet 0/x: This command displays the detailed information about the specific interface of the Cisco switch
- Show interfaces VLAN 1: This command displays the ip address configuration of VLAN 1
- Show running-config: This command displays the status of RAM
- Show startup-config: This command displays the status of NVRAM
- Show-mac-address-table: This command displays the MAC address of the devices that are directly connected to any switch port.
- Show port-security: [interface] [address]: This command displays the port security options on the interface
- Show history: This command displays the last ten commands that are executed in the switch configuration
- Show line: This command is used to view the brief information about all the Cisco switch lines
- Show line console 0: This command is used to view the detailed information about the specific line of the Cisco switch
- Erase startup-config: This command is used to erase the nvram of the Cisco switch
Cisco Switch Configuration Commands
- Configure terminal: This command is used to enter the global configuration mode of the Cisco switch
- Hostname: This command assigns the Cisco switch’s hostname
- Enable password: This command sets the enable password of the Cisco switch
- Enable secret: This command sets the encrypted password of the Cisco switch that is used for entering into the privileged mode
- Interface VLAN 1: This is a global configuration command used to configure the VLAN interface of the Cisco switch
- Interface fast Ethernet 0/x: This command configures the specific interface of the Cisco switch
- IP address: This command configures the ip address of any interface of the Cisco switch
- IP default-gateway: This is an interface configuration command to set the default gateway
- Speed: This command sets the speed for the interface of the Cisco switch
- Duplex: This command sets the duplex setting for the interface of the Cisco switch
- Line console 0: This command is used to enter in the specific line configuration mode of the Cisco switch
- Password: This command sets the password of any line of the Cisco switch
Upgrading IOS on Cisco routers and network switches is highly recommendable because of the following reasons
Patch critical vulnerabilities: Just like any other network device or application, Cisco routers and switches are also prone to security holes. And because routers and switches are critical to network infrastructure, you should plug these security holes as soon as possible.
Incorporate new features: Unless an update is simply a bug fix, every new release of the Cisco IOS includes new features. Upgrading your routers and switches in a timely manner means you’ll have more features to potentially make your job easier.
Stay current: “Staying current” with the latest IOS may sound like a flimsy justification to upgrade, especially when you consider your daily task list. However, when you consider the many different tools that communicate with the router’s IOS, staying current can take on a new importance. For example, if you’re using a SNMP network management tool, it may require your router to run a certain version of the IOS.
Things You'll Need
Microsoft Windows 7 computer with telnet client and TFTP service installed
IP address of the Microsoft Windows 7 computer
Cisco router with telnet service enabled
IP address of the Cisco router
Cisco IOS image located in the TFTP service root directory
Password for the Cisco router telnet connection
Privilege Exec mode password for the Cisco router
Steps to upgrade IOS on Cisco router
1. Click the "Globe" button, then select the "Search" box, and then type "cmd." Right-click on the command line icon that appears and click "Run as Administrator." The command line window will appear.
2. Enter "telnet x.x.x.x," on the command prompt, replacing the "x.x.x.x" with the IP address of a Cisco router, and then press the "Enter" key. Telnet will then connect to the Cisco router.
3. Enter the telnet password when requested on the command prompt, and then tap the "Enter" key.
4. Enter "enable" on the command prompt, and tap the "Enter" key. Type the Privilege Exec password for the Cisco router when requested, and press the "Enter" key.
5. Enter the "copy tftp flash" command on the command prompt, and then tap the "Enter" key.
6. Enter the IP address of the Windows 7 computer on the command line as the IP address of the TFTP server from which to copy the new IOS image, and then tap the "Enter" key.
7. Enter the exact name of the IOS file on the command prompt when requested, and then tap the "Enter" key.
8. Enter the name of the IOS file as the destination file name and tap the "Enter" key.
9. Type "Y" when the "Erase flash: before copying? [confirm]" message appears, and press the "Enter" key. The new IOS file will then be copied to the router flash drive.
10. Enter "configure terminal" on the command line, and then tap the "Enter" key.
11. Type "no boot system" and press the "Enter" key. Then type "boot system flash:ios_filename," except replace the "ios_filename" with the exact name of the IOS file that was just transferred to the Cisco router, and then tap the "Enter" key.
12. Type the "exit" command at the command prompt and tap the "Enter" key, and then type "write memory" and tap the "Enter" key.
13. Enter the "reload" command on the command prompt, and then press the "Enter" key. The Cisco router will restart and boot into the new IOS.
What is a Network Protocol?
A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. These rules include guidelines that regulate the following characteristics of a network: access method, allowed physical topologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer.
Types of Network Protocols
The most common network protocols are:
- Local Talk
- Token Ring
The follow is some common-used network symbols to draw different kinds of network protocols.
The Ethernet protocol is by far the most widely used. Ethernet uses an access method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection). This is a system where each computer listens to the cable before sending anything through the network. If the network is clear, the computer will transmit. If some other node is already transmitting on the cable, the computer will wait and try again when the line is clear. Sometimes, two computers attempt to transmit at the same instant. When this happens a collision occurs. Each computer then backs off and waits a random amount of time before attempting to retransmit. With this access method, it is normal to have collisions. However, the delay caused by collisions and retransmitting is very small and does not normally affect the speed of transmission on the network.
The Ethernet protocol allows for linear bus, star, or tree topologies. Data can be transmitted over wireless access points, twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber optic cable at a speed of 10 Mbps up to 1000 Mbps.
To allow for an increased speed of transmission, the Ethernet protocol has developed a new standard that supports 100 Mbps. This is commonly called Fast Ethernet. Fast Ethernet requires the use of different, more expensive network concentrators/hubs and network interface cards. In addition, category 5 twisted pair or fiber optic cable is necessary. Fast Ethernet is becoming common in schools that have been recently wired.
Local Talk is a network protocol that was developed by Apple Computer, Inc. for Macintosh computers. The method used by Local Talk is called CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance). It is similar to CSMA/CD except that a computer signals its intent to transmit before it actually does so. Local Talk adapters and special twisted pair cable can be used to connect a series of computers through the serial port. The Macintosh operating system allows the establishment of a peer-to-peer network without the need for additional software. With the addition of the server version of AppleShare software, a client/server network can be established.
The Local Talk protocol allows for linear bus, star, or tree topologies using twisted pair cable. A primary disadvantage of Local Talk is speed. Its speed of transmission is only 230 Kbps.
The Token Ring protocol was developed by IBM in the mid-1980s. The access method used involves token-passing. In Token Ring, the computers are connected so that the signal travels around the network from one computer to another in a logical ring. A single electronic token moves around the ring from one computer to the next. If a computer does not have information to transmit, it simply passes the token on to the next workstation. If a computer wishes to transmit and receives an empty token, it attaches data to the token. The token then proceeds around the ring until it comes to the computer for which the data is meant. At this point, the data is captured by the receiving computer. The Token Ring protocol requires a star-wired ring using twisted pair or fiber optic cable. It can operate at transmission speeds of 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Due to the increasing popularity of Ethernet, the use of Token Ring in school environments has decreased.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a network protocol that is used primarily to interconnect two or more local area networks, often over large distances. The access method used by FDDI involves token-passing. FDDI uses a dual ring physical topology. Transmission normally occurs on one of the rings; however, if a break occurs, the system keeps information moving by automatically using portions of the second ring to create a new complete ring. A major advantage of FDDI is speed. It operates over fiber optic cable at 100 Mbps.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a network protocol that transmits data at a speed of 155 Mbps and higher. ATM works by transmitting all data in small packets of a fixed size; whereas, other protocols transfer variable length packets. ATM supports a variety of media such as video, CD-quality audio, and imaging. ATM employs a star topology, which can work with fiber optic as well as twisted pair cable.
ATM is most often used to interconnect two or more local area networks. It is also frequently used by Internet Service Providers to utilize high-speed access to the Internet for their clients. As ATM technology becomes more cost-effective, it will provide another solution for constructing faster local area networks.
The most recent development in the Ethernet standard is a protocol that has a transmission speed of 1 Gbps. Gigabit Ethernet is primarily used for backbones on a network at this time. In the future, it will probably be used for workstation and server connections also. It can be used with both fiber optic cabling and copper. The 1000BaseTX, the copper cable used for Gigabit Ethernet, is expected to become the formal standard in 1999.
Compare the Network Protocols
Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber
Linear Bus, Star, Tree
Twisted Pair, Fiber
Linear Bus or Star
4 Mbps - 16 Mbps
Twisted Pair, Fiber
Linear Bus, Star, Tree
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“How do I enable the wireless in a Cisco Aironet access point?” “What is the best way to setup a wireless network with several access points to give uninterrupted connectivity?” “Resetting a Cisco wireless AP 350? I found an old Cisco wireless access point (Aironet 350 AP352E2C) and was wondering how I can reset it?”
---From Yahoo Answers
Are you also looking to set up an easily accessible wireless network at home or the office? Indeed, wireless access is a great choice for easy, convenient internet and network access from anywhere you need it. And different products can allow you to extend the wireless range to just your apartment, your office building, or your entire campus. Cisco has a variety of products designed to fit every wireless requirement that you could need.
Further info on wireless access points for home, small business, and large enterprises as follows
Cisco Wireless Access Points for Home---Valet
The Valet series is made with the home in mind. Valet products are inexpensive, sleekly designed, and they’re very easy to set up. They also function as your home’s router, allowing you to connect all computers (wireless or corded) to the internet. With the Valet, you can connect your house’s bluetooth or wireless-enabled game systems or other devices with no effort at all. The included Cisco software makes the Valet easy to install and customize on any PC.
Cisco Wireless for the Office---Small Business Access Points
Cisco small business wireless access points, designed with a business owner in mind, allow you to connect farther, faster, and safer than ever before, and the more important is providing a big payoff for small business’ dollar.
The extended range of the small business WAP4410N wireless access point allows employees and guests to connect to the internet anywhere within a large range of connectivity. You can connect a variety of wireless devices in seconds to the network, and you do not even need an available outlet to connect the access point to power. These wireless access points support power-over-ethernet devices, so you can install them quickly and easily anywhere you like.
The small business series has advanced security features to protect your network from unauthorized gateways into your network. They also offer support for the fastest speeds possible with their expanded range, ensuring that your wireless users have all the performance they need right at their fingertips.
Wireless Access Points for Larger Enterprises---Aironet
The Aironet series is designed to fit in perfectly with an enterprise environment and provides sleek, rugged, and powerful performance for an extended range of use and easy scalability. The Aironets also support power-over-ethernet, this greatly lessens the difficulty of installation. Its high-capacity performance can handle large amounts of users while still offering security that large operations need to protect their network. They are also built with clean-air technology and an energy-efficient construction that will help your business reduce its carbon footprint.
For supporting a large user base, covering an extended range, and standing up to rugged environments, large businesses or institutional facilities should consider the Aironet series of wireless access points to give them the performance they need.
That’s it for this guide to Cisco wireless access points. Whether you are at home or small, medium or larger office, going wireless can greatly increase your productivity and ease of access for all your wireless devices.